Presentation on theme: "Roman influence largely lost in era of mass migrations"— Presentation transcript:
1Roman influence largely lost in era of mass migrations Early Medieval ArtRoman influence largely lost in era of mass migrations
2Early Medieval Europe 7th and 8th Century Late 8th century, Charlemagne will unite and stabilizeGreat technological breakthroughs of Roman Empire largely forgotten or not able to be used by migratory people of 7th centuryAge of mass migrations across EuropeAtilla the Hun conquered and despoiled large areas of Europe (Dark Ages?)Vikings came from Scandinavia and invaded Britain & FranceVandals destroyed remains of Roman CivliizationArtist: n/aTitle: Europe of the Early Middle AgesMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/ Museum: n/a
3Time Period: 500 - 1050 Civilization/art Time Place Hiberno Saxon 6th - 8th cent.British IslesViking Art8th - 11th centuryScandinavia (traveled to Brit)Carolingian Art8th-9th centuryCharlemagneFrance, GermanyOttonian Art10th-early 11thGermany
4Early Medieval Painting Monasteries main center of learning, very illiterate populationArtists who could both write & draw created illuminated manuscriptsScribes copied Bible or medicalCodices: made of vellum or parchment, folded into booklets of 8 pages (QUIRES)Scriptoria: room where nuns & monks painted illuminations, sewn quires together to make a bookCovered with bindings of wood, leather, precious gems, godl leafSacred quality of workArtist: n/aTitle: Page with Man,Gospel of Saint Matthew, Gospel Book of Durrow,Medium: Ink and tempera on parchmentSize: 9⅝ X 6⅛" (24.4 X 15.5 cm)Date: Second half of 7th centurySource/ Museum: Probably made at Iona, Scotland, or northern England, / The Board of Trinity College, Dublin. MS 57 fol, 21v.Page with Man, Gospel of St. Matthew, Gospel Book of Durrow, 7th century, Scotland/N. Englane
5Hiberno Saxon Art (Hibernia = Ireland) Celtic Christians, isolated from Rome, developed own art traditionsPortable works done in the animal styleMetalworks of the Visigoths-eagle symbolWhere else do we see Eagle symbol?6th century Eagle Brooch
6Chi Rho Iota, page from The Book of Kells flashcard Oxgall inks & pigments on vellum, 12” x 9”Late 8th or early 9th century, Hiberno-Saxon periodMonks fleeing Viking invasion of Scotland made this bookLavish, richly illustrated book with great complexity of designHorror vacui style of interlacing patternsInitials are dominant motifsHeads & figures of people & animals appear in elaborate designWhat does Chi Rho Iota mean?Artist: n/aTitle: Chi Rho Iota page, Matt. 1:18 from the Book of KellsMedium: Oxgall inks and pigments on vellumSize: 12 ¾ X 9½" (325 X 24 cm)Date: Late 8th or early 9th centurySource/ Museum: Probably made at Iona, Scotland / The Board of Trinity College, Dublin. MS 58, fol. 34r.
7Can you find the animals with the Communion wafer? Artist: n/aTitle: Cats and Mice with Host. Detail of Chi Rho Iota page, Matt.1:18, Book of KellsMedium: Oxgall inks and pigments on vellumSize: 12 ¾ X 9½" (325 X 24 cm)Date: Late 8th or early 9th centurySource/ Museum: Probably made at Iona, Scotland. / The Board of Trinity College, Dublin. MS 58, fol. 34r.Can you find the animals with theCommunion wafer?
10Hiberno-Saxon period; flashcard. Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, 600 CE, cloissone gold, garnet, enamelsHiberno-Saxon period; flashcard.Artist: n/aTitle: Purse Cover, from the Sutton Hoo Burial ShipMedium: Cloisonné plaques of gold, garnet, and checked millefiore glassSize: length 8" (20.3 cm)Date: First half of 7th centurySource/ Museum: Suffolk, England / The British Museum, LondonSutton Hoo ship burial, of a major king or hero; Purse cover designs survive (ivory backing disintegrated). Animal Style hawks attacking ducks. Interlacing patterns of ornamental designs. Cloissonne technique (enamelwork-colored areas sep. by bronze)
11Viking Art Scandinavia expanded raids on British Isles w/ fast ships Hit monasteriesMostly applied artAnimal style, horror vacui8th-11th centuries10th century Rune Stones ordered by King Harald Bluetooth
12Ship symbolized dead warrior’s journey to Valhalla (heaven) Viking ships were used both for transport, raids, and burials miles per dayShip symbolized dead warrior’s journey to Valhalla (heaven)Detail of Gripping Beasts from Oseberg ShipDate: 9th centuryVikings traded, raided, explored, and colonized (todays) England, Scotland, France, and parts of Russia.Leif Ericcson reached North America.Artist: n/aTitle: Gripping Beasts, detail of Oseberg ShipMedium: WoodSize: n/aDate: c. 815–20Source/ Museum: Vikingskiphuset, Universitets Oldsaksamling, Oslo, Norway
132 highly placed women from Viking court Animal patterns & interlacingBoat contained animal sacrifices as well as jewels, precious goodsProw & Stern end in snakes’ heads“gripping beasts” designWomen worked in fiber arts; spindle and loom included in burial ship along with tapestriesArtist: n/aTitle: Queen’s ShipMedium: WoodSize: length 75' 6" (23 m)Date: c. 815–20; burial 834Source/ Museum: Vikingskiphuset, Universitets Oldsaksamling,Oslo, NorwayQueen’s Ship, or Oseberg Ship Burial Wood, 815 CE, Viking burial ship from Oseberg flashcard
14Viking Architecture - Stave Church from Norway Timber architecture-large horizontal wooden beams (staves)Steep pyramidal shapeCrosses & dragons on the gablesBorgund Stave Church, 1125
15Carolingian Art - Charlemagne Germanic Franks unified parts of Germany, France, Italy, Low Countries w/ChristianityBonds between Pope & Emperor CharlemagnePatronage??Charlemagne revived arts & learning, emphasized EducationBenedictine monksCapital at Aachen, GermanyROMAN REVIVAL!!!!!!!!!Equestrian Statue, 9th century, possibly Charlemagne- hierarchy of scale?
16Carolingian Architecture Charles the Great = CharlemagnePlanned Aachen to be new RomeBuilt bath houses, monasteries, churches, etc. such as St. RiquierElaborate westworks (central entrance beneath 2nd story chapel, flanked by elaborate towers)Cloister = open air courtyardAbbey Church of Saint Riquier, Carolingian interpretation of Roman basilica
17Plan of the Abbey of St. Gall, Original from 1092, (redrawn) Ideal monastic communityChurch symbolic and literal centerCloistered monks never leave except to farmWorkshops for leather, potteryCarolingian church w/westworkChurch was never built AFAIKArtist: n/aTitle: Plan of the Abbey of Saint Gall (Redrawn), c Original in red ink on parchment, 28 X 44⅛" (71.1 X Cm). Stiftsbibliothek, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Cod. Sang. 1092Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/ Museum: n/a
18Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, 9th century, Aachen, Germany flashcardArtist: n/aTitle: Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, interior viewMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 792–805Source/ Museum: Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), GermanyPalace Chapel of Charlemagne, 9th century, Aachen, GermanyOdo of Metz (interior), Centrally planned chapel for Charlemagne; Dome made of spherical triangles. Throne located in gallery halfway between heaven & earthLargest arches on2nd floor, columns fill space, don’t support archDesign inspired by Church of San Vitale - Ravenna Italy. Byzantine syle mosaics.
19Design inspired by Church of San Vitale on right Artist: n/aTitle: Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, interior viewMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: 792–805Source/ Museum: Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), GermanyDesign inspired by Church of San Vitale on right
20Utrecht Psalter (page with Psalm 23) 13” x 10” 9th century (Caroiingian)FlashcardRichly illustrated ink drawings on vellum of the psalms of the BibleOne color (unlike Book of Kells & other manuscripts)Small initialsLiteral translation of psalmsStyle with agitated gestures, active violenceArtist: n/aTitle: Page with Psalm 23, Utrecht PsalterMedium: Ink on vellum or parchmentSize: 13 X 9⅞" (33 X 25 cm)Date: Second quarter of 9th centurySource/ Museum: Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht, Holland. MS 32, fol. 13r.
21Coronation Gospels, Page with Matthew the Evangelist (flashcard) 13” x 10”Early 9th century (Carolingian period)Carolingians promoted learning & ChristianityImperial workshops-carefully edited textsRETURN OF THE HUMAN FIGURE in these booksEach monastery had distinct style..Godelscalc, Ebbo, Etc.Influence on figure???(REVIVAL)Artist: n/aTitle: Page with Matthew the Evangelist, Gospel of Matthew, Coronatinon GospelsMedium: n/aSize: 12 ¾ X 9⅞" (36.3 X 25 cm)Date: Early 9th centurySource/ Museum: Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna
22This page of Matthew the Evangelist is from the Ebbo Gospels. Successor of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious… Ebbo was friend and patron of arts.Expressive intensityUses brush like a penCreated new style of writingArtist: n/aTitle: Page with Matthew the Evangelist, Gospel of Matthew, Ebbo GospelsMedium: Ink, gold, and colors on vellumSize: 10 ¼ X 8¾" (26 X 22.2 cm)Date: Second quarter of 9th centurySource/ Museum: Bibliothèque Municipale, Épernay, France. MS 1, fol. 18v.
23Lindau Gospels, outer cover Late 9th century, Carolingian period Gold with pearls, sapphires, emeralds & garnetsMonastic workshop of Charlemagne’s grandsonBecame the cover of magnifcently illustrated Lindau GospelsGoldsmith technique = ________Jesus in classical poseCarolingian empire ended when Vikings took over at end of 9th century.Artist: n/aTitle: Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures, outer cover, Lindau GospelsMedium: Gold, pearls, sapphires, garnets, and emeraldsSize: 13¾ X 10⅜" (36.9 X 26.7 cm)Date: c. 870–80Source/ Museum: The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. MS 1
24Ottonian Art & Architecture Otto defeasted Vikings and reunited EuropeRevitalized church & spiritual valuesRome & Early Christian influenceImperial imagery from CarolinianBronze doors, large stone Mon.Interior arches & windows don’t line upChurch of St. Cyriakis, Belgium
25Doors of Bishop Bernward, Church of St. Michael, 11th century Germany (Ottonian)16’6” high, bronze doorsFIRST Bronze major casing since antiquity, style looks like Utrecht PsalterImperial influence: Pantheon, Aachen had bronze doors w/o decorationRectangular panels with few figures, bare landscapes, lively gesturesBony figures, vitality and livelyEmphasis on feet, hands, headsflashcardArtist: n/aTitle: Doors of Bishop BernwardMedium: BronzeSize: height 16' 6" (5 m)Date: 1015Source/ Museum: Made for the Abbey Church of Saint Michael, Hildesheim, Germany
26Diagram of the Doors of Bishop Bernward Artist: n/aTitle: Schematic Diagram of the message of the Doors of Bishop Bernward of HildesheimMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/ Museum: n/a
27Page with Otto III Enthroned Late 10th century Aachen GospelsPage with Otto III EnthronedLate 10th centuryInk, gold, colors on vellumOtto III shown enthroned in centerSurrounded by a mandorla and symbols of the evangelistsMade in scriptoria near ReichenauWHAT WAS THE FUNCTION OF THIS ARTWORK?WHO WAS THE PATRON?Warriors & Bishops face each other in bottom of pageflashcardArtist: n/aTitle: Page with Otto III Enthroned, Liuthar Gospels (Aachen Gospels)Medium: Ink, gold, and colors on vellumSize: 10⅞ X 8½" (27.9 X 21.8 m)Date: c. 996Source/ Museum: Cathedral Treasury, Aachen
28Gero Crucifix, Cologne Cathedral Ottonian period (10th century) Painted & gilded wood6’2” figureReturn of large monumental sculptureEmotional sufferingRounded formsHanging from a cross for the first time!!!!!!flashcardArtist: n/aTitle: Gero CrucifixMedium: Painted and gilded woodSize: height of figure 6'2" (1.88 m)Date: c. 970Source/ Museum: Cologne Cathedral, Germany
29Aachen Gospels of Otto III Page w/Christ washing the feet of his disciplesInk, gold, colors on vellumEarly 11th centuryWhat influences do you see in the figures here? The colors?Artist: n/aTitle: Page with Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto IIIMedium: Ink, gold, and colors on vellumSize: approx. 8 X 6" (20.5 X 14.5 cm)Date: c. 1000Source/ Museum: n/a
30Emeterius & Ende, scribe Senior Page with the Bird and the Serpent Islamic influence in Spanish artART OF THE BOOK PROJECT!!!You may use this as an example…Artist: Emeterius and Ende, with the scribe SeniorTitle: Page with Battle of the Bird and the Serpent, Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and Commentary on Daniel by Jerome (Detail)Medium: Tempera on parchmentSize: 15 ¾ X 10¼" (40 X 26 cm)Date: Completed July 6, 975Source/ Museum: Made for Abbot Dominicus, probably at the Monastery of San Salvador at Tábara, León, Spain / Cathedral Library, Gerona, Spain. MS 7, fol. 18v.