Presentation on theme: "Early Medieval Art Roman influence largely lost in era of mass migrations."— Presentation transcript:
Early Medieval Art Roman influence largely lost in era of mass migrations
Great technological breakthroughs of Roman Empire largely forgotten or not able to be used by migratory people of 7th century Age of mass migrations across Europe Atilla the Hun conquered and despoiled large areas of Europe (Dark Ages?) Vikings came from Scandinavia and invaded Britain & France Vandals destroyed remains of Roman Civliization Early Medieval Europe 7th and 8th Century Late 8th century, Charlemagne will unite and stabilize
Time Period: Civilization/artTimePlace Hiberno Saxon6th - 8th cent.British Isles Viking Art8th - 11th century Scandinavia (traveled to Brit) Carolingian Art8th-9th century Charlemagne France, Germany Ottonian Art10th-early 11thGermany
Early Medieval Painting Monasteries main center of learning, very illiterate population Artists who could both write & draw created illuminated manuscripts Scribes copied Bible or medical Codices: made of vellum or parchment, folded into booklets of 8 pages (QUIRES) Scriptoria: room where nuns & monks painted illuminations, sewn quires together to make a book Covered with bindings of wood, leather, precious gems, godl leaf Sacred quality of work Page with Man, Gospel of St. Matthew, Gospel Book of Durrow, 7th century, Scotland/N. Englane
Hiberno Saxon Art (Hibernia = Ireland) Celtic Christians, isolated from Rome, developed own art traditions Portable works done in the animal style Metalworks of the Visigoths- eagle symbol Where else do we see Eagle symbol? 6th century Eagle Brooch
Chi Rho Iota, page from The Book of Kells flashcard Oxgall inks & pigments on vellum, 12” x 9” Late 8th or early 9th century, Hiberno-Saxon period Monks fleeing Viking invasion of Scotland made this book Lavish, richly illustrated book with great complexity of design Horror vacui style of interlacing patterns Initials are dominant motifs Heads & figures of people & animals appear in elaborate design What does Chi Rho Iota mean?
Can you find the animals with the Communion wafer?
Where else do we see horror vacui styles? ?
Horror Vacui anyone?
Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, 600 CE, cloissone gold, garnet, enamels Hiberno-Saxon period; flashcard. Sutton Hoo ship burial, of a major king or hero; Purse cover designs survive (ivory backing disintegrated). Animal Style hawks attacking ducks. Interlacing patterns of ornamental designs. Cloissonne technique (enamelwork-colored areas sep. by bronze)
Viking Art Scandinavia expanded raids on British Isles w/ fast ships Hit monasteries Mostly applied art Animal style, horror vacui 8th-11th centuries 10th century Rune Stones ordered by King Harald Bluetooth
Viking ships were used both for transport, raids, and burials miles per day Ship symbolized dead warrior’s journey to Valhalla (heaven) Detail of Gripping Beasts from Oseberg Ship Date: 9th century Vikings traded, raided, explored, and colonized (todays) England, Scotland, France, and parts of Russia. Leif Ericcson reached North America.
Queen’s Ship, or Oseberg Ship Burial Wood, 815 CE, Viking burial ship from Oseberg flashcard 2 highly placed women from Viking court Animal patterns & interlacing Boat contained animal sacrifices as well as jewels, precious goods Prow & Stern end in snakes’ heads “gripping beasts” design Women worked in fiber arts; spindle and loom included in burial ship along with tapestries
Viking Architecture - Stave Church from Norway Timber architecture- large horizontal wooden beams (staves) Steep pyramidal shape Crosses & dragons on the gables Borgund Stave Church, 1125
Carolingian Art - Charlemagne Germanic Franks unified parts of Germany, France, Italy, Low Countries w/Christianity Bonds between Pope & Emperor Charlemagne Patronage?? Charlemagne revived arts & learning, emphasized Education Benedictine monks Capital at Aachen, Germany ROMAN REVIVAL!!!!!!!!! Equestrian Statue, 9th century, possibly Charlemagne- hierarchy of scale?
Carolingian Architecture Charles the Great = Charlemagne Planned Aachen to be new Rome Built bath houses, monasteries, churches, etc. such as St. Riquier Elaborate westworks (central entrance beneath 2nd story chapel, flanked by elaborate towers) Cloister = open air courtyard Abbey Church of Saint Riquier, Carolingian interpretation of Roman basilica
Plan of the Abbey of St. Gall, Original from 1092, (redrawn) Ideal monastic community Church symbolic and literal center Cloistered monks never leave except to farm Workshops for leather, pottery Carolingian church w/westwork Church was never built AFAIK
Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, 9th century, Aachen, Germany Odo of Metz (interior), Centrally planned chapel for Charlemagne; Dome made of spherical triangles. Throne located in gallery halfway between heaven & earth Largest arches on2nd floor, columns fill space, don’t support arch Design inspired by Church of San Vitale - Ravenna Italy. Byzantine syle mosaics. flashcard
Design inspired by Church of San Vitale on right
Utrecht Psalter (page with Psalm 23) 13” x 10” 9th century (Caroiingian) Flashcard Richly illustrated ink drawings on vellum of the psalms of the Bible One color (unlike Book of Kells & other manuscripts) Small initials Literal translation of psalms Style with agitated gestures, active violence
Coronation Gospels, Page with Matthew the Evangelist (flashcard) 13” x 10” Early 9th century (Carolingian period) Carolingians promoted learning & Christianity Imperial workshops- carefully edited texts RETURN OF THE HUMAN FIGURE in these books Each monastery had distinct style.. Godelscalc, Ebbo, Etc. Influence on figure??? (REVIVAL)
This page of Matthew the Evangelist is from the Ebbo Gospels. Successor of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious… Ebbo was friend and patron of arts. Expressive intensity Uses brush like a pen Created new style of writing
Lindau Gospels, outer cover Late 9th century, Carolingian period Gold with pearls, sapphires, emeralds & garnets Monastic workshop of Charlemagne’s grandson Became the cover of magnifcently illustrated Lindau Gospels Goldsmith technique = ________ Jesus in classical pose Carolingian empire ended when Vikings took over at end of 9th century.
Ottonian Art & Architecture Otto defeasted Vikings and reunited Europe Revitalized church & spiritual values Rome & Early Christian influence Imperial imagery from Carolinian Bronze doors, large stone Mon. Interior arches & windows don’t line up Church of St. Cyriakis, Belgium
Doors of Bishop Bernward, Church of St. Michael, 11th century Germany (Ottonian) 16’6” high, bronze doors FIRST Bronze major casing since antiquity, style looks like Utrecht Psalter Imperial influence: Pantheon, Aachen had bronze doors w/o decoration Rectangular panels with few figures, bare landscapes, lively gestures Bony figures, vitality and lively Emphasis on feet, hands, heads flashcard
Diagram of the Doors of Bishop Bernward
Aachen Gospels Page with Otto III Enthroned Late 10th century Ink, gold, colors on vellum Otto III shown enthroned in center Surrounded by a mandorla and symbols of the evangelists Made in scriptoria near Reichenau WHAT WAS THE FUNCTION OF THIS ARTWORK? WHO WAS THE PATRON? Warriors & Bishops face each other in bottom of page flashcard
Gero Crucifix, Cologne Cathedral Ottonian period (10th century) Painted & gilded wood 6’2” figure Return of large monumental sculpture Emotional suffering Rounded forms Hanging from a cross for the first time!!!!!! flashcard
Aachen Gospels of Otto III Page w/Christ washing the feet of his disciples Ink, gold, colors on vellum Early 11th century What influences do you see in the figures here? The colors?
Emeterius & Ende, scribe Senior Page with the Bird and the Serpent Islamic influence in Spanish art ART OF THE BOOK PROJECT!!! You may use this as an example…