3 Goals Understand the distinctive artistic traditions of the European peoples beyond the Roman Empire. Know the different types of art, media, and their respective cultures. Trace influences of medieval art styles. Examine the secular and religious architectural forms in the early middle ages.
4 Topics: Chapter 16 Start with chronology: ca 500-1000 An era of fusion of Roman and “barbarian” cultures. Art of the Warrior Lords: fibula/purse/Oseberg ship/ stave church. Intertwined animal figures. Hiberno-Saxon: illuminated manuscripts/ Celtic crosses. Mozarabic Art: manuscripts Carolingian Art: Charlemagne/manuscripts/ architecture Ottonian Art: architecture/manuscripts
5 Art of the Warrior Lords What has survived are small status symbols, such as the Merovignian looped fibula from Jouy-Le-Comte mid 6 th cen. – a decorative pin that goes back to the Romans & Etruscans. Used to fasten the outer garment. Patterns adjusted to shape of the fibula – zoomorphic elements are interwoven. Beowolf: “They bequeathed the gleaming gold, of men, to the earth.”
6 Art of the Warrior Lords Sutton Hoo Cloisonné purse clasp – ca. 625. Cloisonné is French for partitions -- compartments filled with various elements, then fired to melt & blend. Between mosaics and stained glass. Figures on purse clasp are of a man standing between two beasts. Central “interlace” turn into writhing animals.
7 Art of the Warrior Lords A Viking ship: The Oseberg ship – ca 825. The Vikings terrorized Northern Europe—not just raiders, but colonized. In 11 th cen all on England was part of Denmark! Note the ferocious animal head, itself consisting of writhing animal forms.
8 Art of the Warrior Lords The stave church [wedge shaped timbers stacked vertically.] Urnes, ca. 1050-1070: example of Viking designs in a Christian church. Elongated animal forms and flexible plant stalks.
9 Hiberno-Saxon Art: Books In 432 St Patrick established a church in Ireland. –From there the Irish monks developed their own traditions, spreading them into England and Scotland. The most important artistic activity was in illuminated manuscripts, including: – “Bibles” [Old & New Testaments], “Pentateuchs” [1 st 5 books], “Lectionaries” [readings from the gospels arranged in the order read during the church year.] “Insular” style: centers were at Lindisfarne & Iona during this period.
10 Insular Style Book of Durrow, ca 660- 680, possibly Iona. Carpet pages inserted – no precedent in classical style for this. Also included large illuminated initials A marriage between Christian and the animal- interlace style.
12 Lindisfarne Gospels ca. 698-721 How are these different from the carpet pages? –Mediterranean influence: indoors, hint of perspective – name is in mixture of Greek & Latin. Iconography?
13 The Book of Kells “ Chi-Ro-Iota” page ca. Iona, late 8 th or early 9 th cen.. Illuminating the word Opening of account of the nativity in the gospel of Matthew. Chi-Ro-Iota: XPI – initial letters of “Christ: in Greek. “autem” generatio” – “Now this is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about” Includes animals an male head as well angels & abstract patterns.
15 Ireland’s High Crosses High cross of Muirdach, Ireland -- 923. Circle intersecting the cross identifies it as “Celtic”
16 Kildalton Cross, Islay, Scotland The Kildalton Cross is a monolithic Celtic cross in the churchyard of the former parish church of Kildalton (Scottish Gaelic: 'Church of the Foster Son' [ie. St John the Evangelist]) on the island of Islay in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. It was carved probably in the second half of the 8th century AD, and is closely related to crosses of similar date on Iona. It is often considered the finest surviving 'Celtic' cross in Scotland.
19 Mozarabic Art Example from Tabara, Spain – 970 Picture of a medieval scriptorium Mozarabic – refers to Christians living in Arab territories.
20 On Christmas Day 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles the Great as Emperor of Rome. [King of Franks from 768.] ** First Holy [Christian] Emperor ** Model for equestrian statue was Marcus Aurelius ** Emperor larger scale than the horse ** Quiet dignity replaces earlier torsion. Carolingian Art: Rome rises again
21 Charlemagne’s Books He was admirer of learning, the arts & classical culture. Portrait of St Matthew: Charlemagne’s Gospel vs. Lindisfarne A different style: Ebbo Gospel
26 Gateway to Lorsch – 9 th cen. Torhalle – throwback to Roman arches & city gates. –Composite capitals, imitates Roman facing techniques – 2 nd level is not Roman.
27 The Ideal Monastery: St Gall, Switzerland ca. 819 Benedictine monasteries important during this period. Focus on rules and regulations to counter corruption in the church – thus the rise of highly regulated communities, or abbeys. Included all that was needed for daily & religious life.
28 “Westworks” Towers at the end of churches Towers incorporated in western façade of church.
29 Ottonian Art Divisions followed the death of Charlemagne & invasions followed, breaking up the kingdom. The eastern part consolidated under King Otto in 936. The basilica was transformed: Saint Cyriakus, Gernode, Germany. An apse replaced the “westwork”, but the towers remained.
30 Hildesheim 1001-1030 The basilica takes further form
31 Hildesheim 1001-1030 Alternate support system: heavy square piers alternate with columns – creating vertical units that softened the horizontal, tunnel feel of earlier churches.
32 Bronze Doors at Hildeheim 16 ft high – each panel cast in “lost wax” process. –Left door: Book of Genesis –Right door: Life of Christ
33 Bronze Doors at Hildesheim -- 1015 16 ft high – each panel cast in “lost wax” process. –Left door: Book of Genesis –Right door: Life of Christ –Bishop Bernward comissioned
39 Discussion Questions Why is the art of the peoples outside the Roman Empire significantly different from classical Roman art and architecture? Compare the three major manuscript styles that developed in the middle ages. What previous styles of art influenced medieval art?