2 The Big FourBig Four – name given to the group of leaders from the four main allies in Europe and U.S.Big Four MembersWoodrow Wilson – U.S. PresidentGeorge Clemenceau – French leaderDavid Lloyd George – British Prime MinisterVittorio Orlando – Italian leader
3 Differing Terms to Peace French – wanted Germany to pay for war even if it meant hurting Germany long termBritish – wanted Germany to be punished but not destroyedItaly – wanted territory for itselfU.S. – wanted the Fourteen Points passed, but other Allies felt that the terms were not hard enoughFourteen Points – Woodrow Wilson’s plan for peace in Europe which included forming a League of Nations
4 The Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles – ends World War I and brought Germany to its knees – signed by Germans on June 28, 1919Components of treaty:Germany pays all countries for war costsGermany responsible for war entirelyLimit size of German militaryGermany return conquered lands to France and RussiaGerman land taken to form new nation of PolandGerman colonies given to other world powersMade Weimar Republic (set up by French) permanent Established League of Nations – Germany not included
5 Effects of the Treaty of Versailles Germany was humiliated – furious over treatyCreates more hatred for the AlliesWar debt payments causes Germany to enter a DepressionEconomy is destroyed and they have no ability to make money as all their industrial regions and resources were taken awayAllowed for the rise of radical politics in GermanyThe Nazi Party will become popularNazi Party will be led by a young World War I veteran named Adolf Hitler
6 U.S. Reaction to the Treaty American government would not ratify treaty and Woodrow Wilson did not like the termsEffects:U.S. will try to help Germany with war debtWill lead to us entering a depressionU.S. will not enter League of Nations – fear of getting them involved in another warLeague will have little to no power and not meet its mission
7 Other Nations, Other Treaties Treaties were made with all nations involved in warEffects of other Treaties:Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary were broken apart forming new nations of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and TurkeyOttoman lands in Middle East turned into mandatesMandates – territories to be ruled by European powersBritish control of Palestine led to passage of Balfour Declaration – create a Jewish state in Palestine (first step in forming Israel)Mandates became colonies – angered Middle Easterners
8 Cost of War Human Cost: Nearly 9,000,000 soldiers killed Millions more woundedNearly an entire generation of young men in Germany, France, and Russia were wiped outAll made worse by the Spanish Influenza of 1918 which killed nearly 50,000,000 globally
9 Cost of War Economic Cost: Destroyed national economies France, Belgium, and Russia saw their farmlands destroyed by fightingCities and industry were destroyed as wellLed to widespread chaos – Great DepressionEurope no longer dominant economic region of worldU.S. and Japan made a fortune of war as nations turned to them to buy goods
10 Cost of War Political Changes: Colonial Changes: Communist Revolution in Russia – Czar goneMonarchies in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Ottoman Empire were all overthrownRise of radical parties in Europe and globallyNazi PartyEurope becomes filled with hate following warColonial Changes:Colonists wanted freedom because of sacrifice made in war, but that freedom did not comeEuropeans begin fighting wars in their colonies to put down rebellion
11 Question Slide 1 of 2 What men and nations made up Big Four? What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?Which of the Fourteen Points made it into the Treaty?What were the effects of the treaty?How did the U.S. react to the Treaty?What happened to the Ottoman Empire and Austrian-Hungarian Empire?
12 Question Slide 2 of 2 What new nations were formed after World War I? What were the costs of World War I? (Human, Economic, Political, and Colonial Changes)
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