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Chapter 11 Section 4 Making the Peace.

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1 Chapter 11 Section 4 Making the Peace

2 The Costs of War Loss of human life and materials Financial Toll
1918 “pandemic” of influenza killed 20 million Financial Toll Rebuilding period, resentment among citizens Allies demanded “reparations” Political Turmoil Governments collapsed, “radicals” emerged Radicals pushed bolshevism (later Communism) Colonial troops saw weakness and hoped for independence

3 The Paris Peace Conference
Allies met to discuss the future of Europe Conflicting Goals “The Big Three” Wilson urged “peace without victory” British prime minister David Lloyd George wanted money to build a post-war Britain “fit for heroes” French leader Georges Clemenceau wanted a weak Germany that wouldn’t threaten France Problems with Peace Other leaders had other demands and interests Many demanded land promised to them and their own national states (Italy, people governed by Russia, Austri-Hungary, or the Ottoman Empire) Wilson wanted a League of Nations based on “collective security”

4 The Treaty of Versailles
June 1919: Allies demanded that Germany sign the treaty Germany was to take all the blame for the war Germany had to pay huge reparations ($30 billion then, $2.7 trillion today) Limited Germany military, returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, removed hundreds of miles of German territory in the east and west, stripped Germany of its colonies Compelled many Germans to leave Russia, Poland, Alsace-Lorraine, and German colonies Germans had no choice but to sign – led to resentment that would last for 20 years and eventually help cause another world war

5 Outcome of the Peace Settlements
Other treaties were signed with the other Central Powers, leaving similar dissatisfaction Self-Determination in Eastern Europe New nations emerged where German, Austrian, and Russian Empires once ruled Poland, Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia all gained independence New Republics of Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary in the Hapsbrg heartland In the Balkans, Yugoslavia was created and dominated by Serbia

6 Outcome of the Peace Settlements
The Mandate System European colonies in Africa and Asia hoped for similar independence and an end to imperial rule Instead, through “mandates” they were divided among the Allies (Britain, France, Japan, Australia) Overlapping claims threatened peace settlements It was supposed to be temporary, but the colonies felt betrayed The League of Nations offers Hope More than 40 nations joined, hoping for negotiations instead of future wars Not the US. Senate wanted to prevent the US from being forced into war. This weakened the power of the League The League only had influence over its members and could not prevent war Still, a step in the right direction

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