2 IntroductionWorld War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish those terms began at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. Attending the talks, known as the Paris Peace Conference, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.
9 Wilson’s Plan for Peace Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—an outline for lasting world peace.Calls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildupsPromotes self-determination—right of people to govern their own nationEnvisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
10 Fourteen Points End of secret treaties Freedom of the seas Free trade Arms reductionsAdjustment of colonial claimsSettlement of questions regarding Russian territoryRestoration of BelgiumRestoration of France’s territories including Alsace-LorraineReadjustment of Italy’s bordersPeoples of Austria-Hungary given self-determinationSerbia given access to the sea and can join with other Balkan states (Yugoslavia created).Turkish portion of Ottoman empire sovereign, but other portions given self-determination. Dardanelles open to as shipping passage to all nations.Independent PolandLeague of Nations
11 The Versailles TreatyBritain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany.Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June 1919.Creates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace.Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations.League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.
13 The Creation of New Nations The Versailles Treaty, other peace accords change the look of EuropeAustria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire all lose landsFormer Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turn into mandatesNew countries in southeastern EuropeRussia gives up land.
15 New European Countries Post World War I Finland-land lost by RussiaEstonia-land lost by RussiaLatvia-land lost by RussiaLithuania-land lost by RussiaPoland-restored from land lost by Germany and RussiaCzechoslovakiaAustriaHungaryRomania-gained landYugoslavia
16 Mandates in Africa and Middle East French Mandate of SyriaFrench Mandate of LebanonBritish Mandate of PalestineBritish Mandate of TransjordanBritish Mandate of IraqBritish TogolandFrench TogolandBritish CameroonFrench CameroonRuanda-UrundiTanganyikaSouth-West Africa
17 “A Peace Build on Quicksand” Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sidesGerman people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for warAmerica never ratifies Treaty of VersaillesMany Americans oppose League of Nations and involvement with EuropeSome former colonies express anger over not winning independenceJapan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want