Presentation on theme: "A Flawed Peace Chapter 29, Section 4. Introduction ► World War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked."— Presentation transcript:
A Flawed Peace Chapter 29, Section 4
Introduction ► World War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish those terms began at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. Attending the talks, known as the Paris Peace Conference, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.
The Allies Meet and Debate
Key Leaders Come Together ► This group of leaders was known as the Big Four dominated the peace talks in Paris at Versailles.
United States ► President Woodrow Wilson
France ► Georges Clemenceau
Great Britain ► Prime Minister, David Lloyd George
Italy ► Vittorio Orlando
Wilson’s Plan for Peace ► Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—an outline for lasting world peace. ► Calls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildups ► Promotes self-determination—right of people to govern their own nation ► Envisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
Fourteen Points 1. End of secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free trade 4. Arms reductions 5. Adjustment of colonial claims 6. Settlement of questions regarding Russian territory 7. Restoration of Belgium 8. Restoration of France’s territories including Alsace- Lorraine 9. Readjustment of Italy’s borders 10. Peoples of Austria-Hungary given self-determination 11. Serbia given access to the sea and can join with other Balkan states (Yugoslavia created). 12. Turkish portion of Ottoman empire sovereign, but other portions given self- determination. Dardanelles open to as shipping passage to all nations. 13. Independent Poland 14. League of Nations
The Versailles Treaty ► Britain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany. ► Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June Creates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace. Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations. League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.
A Troubled Treaty
The Creation of New Nations The Versailles Treaty, other peace accords change the look of Europe Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire all lose lands Former Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turn into mandates New countries in southeastern Europe Russia gives up land.
Europe Pre-World War I
New European Countries Post World War I Finland-land lost by Russia Estonia-land lost by Russia Hungary Austria Romania-gained land Czechoslovakia Poland -restored from land lost by Germany and Russia Yugoslavia Latvia-land lost by Russia Lithuania-land lost by Russia
Mandates in Africa and Middle East 1. French Mandate of Syria 2. French Mandate of Lebanon 3. British Mandate of Palestine 4. British Mandate of Transjordan 5. British Mandate of Iraq 6. British Togoland 7. French Togoland 8. British Cameroon 9. French Cameroon 10. Ruanda-Urundi 11. Tanganyika 12. South-West Africa
“A Peace Build on Quicksand” ► Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides ► German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war ► America never ratifies Treaty of Versailles Many Americans oppose League of Nations and involvement with Europe ► Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence ► Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want