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End of fighting and treaty of Versailles

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1 End of fighting and treaty of Versailles
End of world war I End of fighting and treaty of Versailles

2 U.S. turns tide of War By joining war, the United States brought in: 1. Fresh supplies and troops 2. Industrial might to combat Germany 3. Supplies to re-outfit troops from all Allied countries U.S. comes into war – April 6, 1917 Fighting in the War Ends – November 11, 1918

3 Fourteen Points Fourteen Points – Plan for peace in Europe which was outlined by Woodrow Wilson - Points 1-4 – Open diplomacy - Point 5 – Fair system to resolve disputes over colonies - Points 6-13 – Dealt with self-determination or people’s right to choose their own political status - Point 14 – Called for creation of League of Nations

4 The League of Nations Purpose of League of Nations: 1. Settle disputes between nations 2. Protect democracy 3. Prevent future wars Showed that foreign policy of a democratic nation should be based on morality – not just what was best for that nation.

5 Paris Peace Conference
Began: January 12, 1919 The Conference: - Delegation made up of 32 nations and their leaders - Big Four – leaders of the victorious Allied nations 1. Woodrow Wilson – U.S. 2. David Lloyd George – Great Britain 3. Georges Clemenceau – France 4. Vittorio Orlando - Italy

6 Goals of each of the Big Four
Wilson – United States wanted to ensure peace in Europe and put an end to these types of disputes Lloyd George and Clemenceau – England and France wanted Germany to pay for their aggression Orlando – Italy wanted colonial claims in Africa, primarily resource rich Ethiopia Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia – wanted to start new nations Poland – wanted nation put back together and reformed Ho Chi Minh – Vietnamese chef wanted independence for Vietnam would later lead revolution in Vietnam against French starting Vietnam War

7 Treaty of Versailles The Impact of the Treaty: 1. Germany could not have air force 2. Limits to German military size (100,000 troops only) 3. Germany could not mechanize army 4. Germany could only have 1 ship in navy 5. Germany had to repay debt of all allies – reparations - more than Germany could actually pay 6. Established League of Nations 7 Creation of Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia 8. Central Powers lost all colonies

8 Treaty issues Germany forced to sign treaty under threat of French military force – June 28, 1919 United States – arguments in Congress over signing treaty - Three Groups formed: 1. Immediate ratification – sign now 2. Irreconcilables – no sign because of League of Nations participation 3. Reservationists – ratify treaty if changes were made primarily to League of Nations Charter

9 Treaty Fight in U.S. Wilson was not happy with hang-ups on signing the treaty - Main opponent: Henry Cabot Lodge - Wilson took arguments on the road to the people - Said the treaty must be ratified or the consequences could be disastrous - Tour caused stress on Wilson – he had stroke Lodge presented a new treaty in 1919 and 1920 – Senate rejected both on orders of Wilson 1921 – United States signed separate peace treaties with Germany and Austria-Hungary - Caused U.S. to never join League of Nations

10 Impacts of World War I Human Toll – 14,000,000 dead/7,000,000 men disabled Financial Impact - $280 Billion in war costs Political Impact: 1. Monarchies overthrown in Germany, Austria, Russia 2. Rise of Communism 3. Led to revolutions in colonialized areas

11 Impacts of World War I Economic Impact: 1. European economies devastated 2. United States becomes global economic leader 3. Inflation led to economic issues in U.S. 4. Prices on goods went up in U.S. – people could not afford goods 5. Farmers took hit when demand for food dropped after war

12 Impacts of World War I Social Impacts: 1. Women serving in work place = passage of 19th Amendment - got right to vote 2. African-Americans moved to the North to find work in factories - led to population shifts in pattern European Impacts: 1. Europeans lost nearly an entire generation of young men 2. France was destroyed 3. Great Britain and Germany were broke or in debt 4. Still a great deal of anger in Europe – leads to World War II

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