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New Movements in America

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1 New Movements in America
Chapter 14 Section 1 p Immigrants and Urban Challenges Section 2 p American Arts Section 3 p Reforming Society Section 4 p The Movement to End Slavery Section 5 p461-67 Women’s Rights

2 Section 1: Immigrants & Urban Challenges
KEY TERMS & PEOPLE: Nativists – Americans and other who opposed immigrants Know-Nothing Party – political organization who worked to bar immigrants from citizenship and political office Middle Class – a new economic class between the wealthy and the poor Tenements – poorly designed apartment buildings that were overcrowded

3 Millions of Immigrants arrive
More than 4 million immigrants settled in the US between 1840 & 1860 Most arrived from European countries Over 3 million were from Ireland and Germany German Émigré’ leaving Hamburg for the US

4 The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840’s led many Irish to Immigrate to the US in search of a better life


6 The Irish Potato Famine of 1840’s
killed over 1 million Irish and caused millions more to leave Ireland Most Irish were very poor

7 They settled mainly in the Northeast: Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, & Pennsylvania

8 Men worked as unskilled laborers in factories or building canals and railroads. Women often worked as domestics.

9 Despite harsh conditions, low wages and poor housing many saw America as a land of equality and opportunity

10 Most Irish immigrants were Catholic

11 In 1848 a failed revolution in Germany caused many of Germany’s educated upper class to flee political persecution

12 A Failed German Revolution
However, most German immigrants were working class and came to America for economic reasons While most Irish were Catholic, Germans were a mix of Catholics, Jews and Protestants German immigrants were more likely than Irish to become Farmers in the new land

13 Population Density of German Born Americans in 1880

14 They usually had more money to fund their immigration
They moved to the Midwest where there was more land available They usually had more money to fund their immigration

15 Many Germans worked at skilled labor such as tailors, seamstresses, bricklayers, cabinet makers, bakers and food merchants

16 Anti-Immigration Movements
Industrialization and Immigration greatly changed the American labor force Industrial jobs in the Northeast attracted many people Many native born workers feared losing their jobs to incoming immigrants who were willing to work for lower wages

17 Some where threatened by the immigrants culture and religion

18 Americans also mistrusted Catholic immigrants because of the history of conflict between European Protestants and Catholics

19 “No Irish Need Apply” Americans and others who opposed immigration were called nativists In 1849 nativists founded a political the Know-Nothing Party, which tried to limit immigration

20 Rapid Growth of Cities The Industrial Revolution led to the new jobs being created in American cities The Transportation Revolution helped connect the cities The rise of Industry and the growth of Cities changed American life ¾ of the countries manufacturing jobs were in cities of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States Small business owners and skilled workers profited most from the those changes Merchants, manufacturers, professionals, and master craftsmen made up the new Middle Class Cities afforded opportunity for entertainment and enriched cultural life like libraries, clubs and theatre

21 Urban Problem Rapid Growth of the Cities led to many overcrowding and issues with: Transport Housing Public Health Public Safety

22 Public and private transportation was limited

23 Because wages were so low many people could only afford to live in Tenements

24 Tenements were poorly designed apartment buildings that were dirty over crowded and unsafe

25 Lack of Public Health regulations
Did not have clean water No effective waste & trash removal Cholera and other epidemics were widespread Lack of Public Health regulations

26 High crime rates and fires also plagued fast growing cities in the US

27 The Great Chicago Fire of 1861

28 Review Urban cities grew rapidly -¾ of the countries manufacturing jobs were in cities of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States Urban problems included tenement housing, high crime rates, a lack of public health regulations, limited public transportation

29 Section 2: American Arts
Section 2 p KEY TERMS & PEOPLE: Transcendentalism – belief people could transcend the material things in life Transcendental writers – Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, Henry David Thoreau Utopian Communities – groups of people who tried to form a perfect society Romantic Writers – Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville Romantic Poets – Edgar Allen Poe, Emily Dickenson, Walt Whitman, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

30 Transcendentalists Transcendentalism was a belief system in which followers thought they could rise above the material things in life Transcendentalists believed that people should depend on themselves rather than outside authority.

31 Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson expressed his ideas in the essay “Self- Reliance”

32 Transcendentalists Margaret Fuller wrote Women in the Nineteenth Century, a book about women’s basic rights

33 Transcendentalists After living for 2 years in the woods Henry David Thoreau advised simple living and self reliance in his book Walden He also wrote Civil Disobedience

34 Founded by Unitarian minister George Ripley
Founded by Unitarian minister George Ripley. Founded 1841 went bankrupt 1847 influenced many of the social reform movements of its day: abolitionist, workingman’s movement women’s rights. Emerson, Fuller & Thoreau declined to live there Although it passed away with little more than a whimper, Brook Farm cannot be considered a failure. It profoundly affected the lives of almost everyone it touched: the residents, the children educated there, and the individualistic supporters. Hawthorne based the satiric novel, The Blithesdale Romance, 1852, on his experience there. Brook Farm left an indelible mark on American history, and remains a model for intentional communities throughout the world.  The Utopian community at Brook Farm in Massachusetts influenced the social reform movements of its day. Though it ended in bankruptcy it influenced a generation of intellectuals

35 American Romanticism Romanticism
Each person is capable of achieving greatness and success in life. Each person brings a unique view to the world and emotion should guide creativity. Society is full of corruption and nature provides the only true safe-haven in the world. The uniqueness of the individuals perspective and emotions and celebration of nature and simple life Romanticism A. involved a great interest in the simplicity of Nature B. an emphasis on individual expression C. rejection of established rules

36 American Romantic Painters
Bagram Ibatoulline From the Foundation Up

37 Hudson River School Group of New York City based Landscape Artists
Started around 1850 Influenced by the romantic movement  reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. An America were humans and nature coexist peacefully. Caracterized by their realistic, detailed, and sometimes idealized portrayal of nature Asher Durand In the Woods, 1855

38 Thomas Cole Home in the Woods, 1847

39 Martin Johnson Heade Approaching Thunder Storm, 1859

40 Romantic Writers & Poets
Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter Herman Melville – Moby Dick Edgar Allen Poe – The Raven Emily Dickinson - poetry Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Song of Hiawatha Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass to praise American individualism and democracy.

41 Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Scarlet Letter
Hester Prynne, has been led from the town prison with her infant daughter in her arms, and on the breast of her gown "a rag of scarlet cloth" that "assumed the shape of a letter." It is the uppercase letter "A.“ Hester's husband, who is much older than she, and whose real name is unknown, has sent her ahead to America whilst settling affairs in Europe  while waiting for her husband, Hester has had an affair, She will not reveal her lover's identity, however, and the scarlet letter, along with her subsequent public shaming, is the punishment for her sin and secrecy The elderly onlooker is Hester's missing husband, who is now practicing medicine and calling himself Roger Chillingworth. He reveals his true identity to Hester. Community officials attempt to take Pearl away from Hester, but with the help of Arthur Dimmesdale, an eloquent minister, the mother and daughter manage to stay together. Dimmesdale, however, appears to be wasting away and suffers from mysterious heart trouble, Dimmesdale's psychological anguish deepens, and he invents new tortures for himself The former lovers decide to flee to Europe, where they can live with Pearl as a family. They will take a ship sailing from Boston in four days. Both feel a sense of relief, and Hester removes her scarlet letter and lets down her hair. The sun immediately breaks through the clouds and trees to illuminate her release and joy. Pearl, playing nearby, does not recognize her mother without the letter. She is unnerved and expels a shriek until her mother points out the letter on the ground. Hester beckons Pearl to come to her, but Pearl will not go to her mother until Hester buttons the letter back onto her dress. Pearl then goes to her mother. Dimmesdale gives Pearl a kiss on the forehead, which Pearl immediately tries to wash off in the brook, because he again refuses to make known publicly their relationship. However, he clearly feels a release from the pretense of his former life, and the laws and sins he has lived with. Knowing his life is about to end, he mounts the scaffold with his lover and his daughter, and confesses publicly, exposing the mark supposedly seared into the flesh of his chest. He dies in Hester's arms after Pearl kisses him.[2] Chillingworth dies within the year. Hester and Pearl leave Boston, Many years later, Hester returns alone. When Hester dies is buried next to dimmesdale, Yet one tombstone served for both." The tombstone was decorated with a letter "A", for Hester and Dimmesdale. Considered one of the Great American Novels

42 Herman Melville – Moby Dick
“Call Me Ishmeal” When his bunk mate, a heavily tattooed Polynesian harpooner named Queequeg, returns very late and discovers Ishmael beneath his covers, both men are alarmed, but the two quickly become close friends and decide to sail together from Nantucket, Massachusetts on a whaling voyage. In Nantucket, the pair signs on with the Pequod, a whaling ship that is soon to leave port. The ship’s captain, Ahab, The ship’s officers direct the early voyage while Ahab stays in his cabin. The chief mate is Starbuck, a serious, sincere Quaker and fine leader; second mate is Stubb, happy-go-lucky and cheerful and always smoking his pipe; the third mate is Flask, short and stout but thoroughly reliable. Each mate is responsible for a whaling boat, and each whaling boat of the Pequod has its own pagan harpooneer assigned to it Ahab secures their support for his single, secret purpose for this voyage: hunting down and killing Moby Dick, an old, very large sperm whale, with a snow-white hump and mottled skin, that crippled Ahab on his last whaling voyage. charismatic but monomaniacal captain  The first mate argues repeatedly that the ship’s purpose should be to hunt whales for their oil, with luck returning home profitably, safely, and quickly, but not to seek out and kill Moby Dick in particular — and especially not for revenge. the Pequod meets Moby Dick. For two days, the Pequod's crew pursues the whale, which wreaks widespread destruction, including the disappearance of Fedallah. On the third day, Moby Dick rises up to reveal Fedallah tied to him by harpoon ropes, clearly dead. Even after the initial battle on the third day, it is clear that while Ahab is a vengeful whale-hunter, Moby Dick, while dangerous and fearless, is not motivated to hunt humans three boats sail out to hunt him, Moby Dick damages two of them, forcing them to go back to the ship and leaving only Ahab's vessel intact. Ahab harpoons the whale, but the harpoon-line breaks. Moby Dick then rams the Pequoditself, which begins to sink. As Ahab harpoons the whale again, the unfolding harpoon-line catches him around his neck and he is dragged into the depths of the sea by the diving Moby Dick. The boat is caught up in the whirlpool of the sinking ship, which takes almost all the crew to their deaths. Only Ishmael survives, clinging to Queequeg’s coffin-turned-life buoy for an entire day and night before the Rachel rescues him. Considered one of the Great American Novels

43 Edgar Allen Poe – The Raven
The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. First published in January 1845, the poem is often noted for its musicality, stylized language, and supernatural atmosphere. It tells of a talking raven's mysterious visit to a distraught lover, tracing the man's slow descent into madness. The lover, often identified as being a student,[1][2] is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore. Sitting on a bust of Pallas, the raven seems to further instigate his distress with its constant repetition of the word "Nevermore". The poem makes use of a number of folk and classical references.

44 Emily Dickinson - poet A poet who took definition as her province, Emily Dickinson challenged the existing definitions of poetry and the poet's work Thought of as an eccentric by the locals, she became known for her penchant for white clothing and her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, even leave her room. Most of her friendships were therefore carried out by correspondence. Although Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly eighteen hundred poems were published during her lifetime.[2] The work that was published during her lifetime was usually altered significantly by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Dickinson's poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation.[3] Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends.

45 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Song of Hiawatha
"Music is the universal language of mankind." By the shores of Gitche Gumee, By the shining Big-Sea-Water, Stood the wigwam of Nokomis, Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis work of American Romantic literature, not a representation of Native American oral tradition Ch 1-3 origin story of Iroquios In the ensuing chapters Hiawatha has childhood adventures, falls in love with Minnehaha, slays the evil magician Pearl-Feather, invents written language, discovers corn and other episodes. The poem closes with the approach of a birch canoe to Hiawatha's village, containing "the Priest of Prayer, the Pale-face." Hiawatha welcomes him joyously; and the "Black-Robe chief" brings word of Jesus Christ. Hiawatha and the chiefs accept the Christian message. Hiawatha bids farewell to Nokomis, the warriors, and the young men, giving them this charge: "But my guests I leave behind me/ Listen to their words of wisdom,/ Listen to the truth they tell you." Having endorsed the Christian missionaries, he launches his canoe for the last time westward toward the sunset, and departs forever. Statue of Hiawatha & Minnehaha In Minneapolis, MN

46 Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass
to praise American individualism and democracy. “I am as bad as the worst, but, thank God, I am as good as the best. ”  Whitman paid for the publication of the first edition of Leaves of Grass himself[43] and had it printed at a local print shop during their breaks from commercial jobs.[44]A total of 795 copies were printed  he calls himself "Walt Whitman, an American, one of the roughs, a kosmos, disorderly, fleshly, and sensual, no sentimentalist, no stander above men or women or apart from them, no more modest than immodest". he first edition of Leaves of Grass was widely distributed and stirred up significant interest,[49] in part due to Emerson's approval,[50] but was occasionally criticized for the seemingly "obscene" nature of the poetry.[51] Geologist John Peter Lesley wrote to Emerson, calling the book "trashy, profane & obscene" and the author "a pretentious ass". n the months following the first edition of Leaves of Grass, critical responses began focusing more on the potentially offensive sexual themes. Though the second edition was already printed and bound, the publisher almost did not release it. “Do anything, but let it produce joy.”  “Not I, nor anyone else can travel that road for you.  You must travel it by yourself.  It is not far. It is within reach.  Perhaps you have been on it since you were born, and did not know.  Perhaps it is everywhere - on water and land.”  “Resist much. Obey little.” 

47 Review Romanticism’s Tenets – Transcendentalism –
Each person is capable of achieving greatness and success in life. Each person brings a unique view to the world and emotion should guide creativity. Society is full of corruption and nature provides the only true safe-haven in the world. Transcendentalism – people should begin to follow their own beliefs and use their own judgment. Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Self Reliance

48 Section 3: Reforming Society
KEY TERMS & PEOPLE: Second Great Awakening: Christian renewal movement of early 19th century (1800’s) Charles Grandison Finney & Lyman Beecher Temperance Movement: reform effort to spread abstinence from alcohol Dorthea Dix: leader of prison reform movement Education Reform: Horace Mann & Common-School Movement Catherine Beecher & woman’s education movement Thomas Gallaudet & special needs education

49 Second Great Awakening
During the 1790s, a period of Christian renewal began. It was known as the Second Great Awakening. By the 1830s, it had swept through New England, the Appalachians, and the South. Charles Grandison Finney was one of the leaders of the Second Great Awakening. Finney believed salvation is in the hands of the individual.

50 Opposition to the Second Great Awakening
Some like Minister Lyman Beecher, did not agree with Finney’s message. The Constitution’s First Amendment guaranteed Finney’s right to speak and be heard. Through the efforts of Finney and other ministers, many Americans joined churches across the country. Evangelical religion and evangelical democracy reinforced each other in nineteenth-century America. The spread of evangelical Christianity and democracy across a continent justified the wars against Native Americans and Mexico, and provided the moral framework for the fight against slavery which many Americans came to see as incompatible with Protestant Christianity and democratic government. The problem with mixing religion and politics in this manner was that political issues became moral issues and, therefore, more difficult to deal with in the political process.

51 Social Reformers speak out
In the spirit of the Second Great Awakening, people tried to reform many of society’s ills. Middle class women often led the efforts for Reform

52 Temperance Movement In the temperance movement, people aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Lyman Beecher and other ministers spoke about the evils of alcohol.

53 Prison Reform In 1841 Dorothea Dix, reported on the terrible conditions she found when she visited some Massachusetts prisons. Imprisoned along with adult criminals were the mentally ill and children. Because of efforts by Dix and others, governments built hospitals for the mentally ill and reform schools for young lawbreakers. They also began to try to reform—not just punish—prisoners.

54 Improvements in Education
In the 1800’s most children received some learning but public school education varied widely New England had the most schools, South & West the fewest McGuffey’s Readers were the most popular textbooks. They had selections of British and American literature, readings, and moral and value lessons Social background and wealth affected the quality of education Wealthy - private schools and tutors Poor – public education Whether wealthy or poor, few girls learned to read

55 Common-School Movement
Education in the early 1800s improved with the common-school movement. This movement, led by Horace Mann, worked to have all students, regardless of background, taught in the same place. McGuffey ReaderIn 1833, Rev. William Holmes McGuffey  was approached by Truman and Smith Publishing and asked to write a school text book for their company to sell.  McGuffey had already planned a series of readers and had published his first reader in 1841 to introduce children to McGuffey's ethical code. The child modeled in this book is prompt, good, kind, honest and truthful. This first book contained fifty-five lessons. The readers were very moralistic in tone. They presented the White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant as the model American. These "eclectic readers" - meaning that the selections were chosen from a number of sources - were considered remarkably literary works and probably exerted a greater influence upon literary tastes in the United States more than any other book, excluding the Bible. public schools should be accountable to local school boards and state governments. They also helped establish compulsory school attendance laws for elementary-age children. By 1918, such laws existed in all states. Education for the average person Following American Revolution - became universal education for everyone Northwest Ordinance - established Townships for Education ( )  The ordinance "encouraged" education in this way: It divided the Michigan territory into townships of six square miles each. The townships were then subdivided into 36 sections with a minimum size of 640 acres. Each section was then sold at a public auction with the starting bid of $1 per acre. The funds raised by the sale of section 16 in each township were then set aside for the purpose of funding schools. Arguments for the Common School:  Used to "Americanize" all foreigners More educated the people are, the more productive they can be McGuffey Readers - expanded what was learned Taxes? Dilute culture / religion

56 Women’s Education Women’s education also improved at this time.
Several women’s schools, including Catherine Beecher’s all-female academy in Hartford Connecticut, opened. 1841 — A Treatise on Domestic Economy by Catherine Beecher Catherine Beecher, advocate for women’s education (and abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’s sister), dedicated her life to the idea that women could be as effective and competent as men. Sharing her sister’s belief in the power of the written word, she published A Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies at Home and at School in an attempt to codify domestic duties and emphasize the importance of female labor. The book, which soon became a bestseller of the era, also served as a guide for time management. Beecher’s words taught habits to avoid wasting time in favor of productive activities like education. Read more:

57 Teaching People with Special Needs
Teaching people with disabilities improved, too. Thomas Gallaudet bettered the education of the hearing impaired. Medium: Photograph Owner: Gallaudet University Archives  Credit: Gallaudet University Archives & Clifton Carbin, "Deaf Heritage in Canada", page 17 Co-founder of the first permanent and publicly supported institution for Deaf Americans. (Carbin 17)In 1816 American Thomas Gallaudet, a hearing man, came to France seeking to learn sign language. He was welcomed by Abbé Sicard, and taught by Clerc and Massieu. Gallaudet persuaded master teacher, Laurent Clerc to come back to America with him. Clerc recorded in his diary that during the long voyage of 52 days, he taught Gallaudet French Sign Language and Gallaudet taught Clerc English. Thomas Gallaudet was born on December 10, 1787 in Philadelphia, PA. He graduated from Yale and began a study of sign language and European methods of education for the deaf after meeting Alice Cogswell, a nine-year-old deaf girl. In 1817, Gallaudet established the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut. This was the first institution of its type in North America. He died in

58 African American Communities
Free African Americans usually lived in segregated communities in the North. The Free Africans Society, founded by Richard Allen, pressed for equality and education of Blacks. In 1816 Richard Allen became the first Bishop of the AME Church African Methodist Episcopal Church February, 2010, marks the 250th birthday of Bishop Richard Allen, a revered figure in African American history and one of the nation’s leading abolitionists. Allen's life story is nothing short of extraordinary. Enslaved at birth, he eventually bought his freedom and became one of the most important African American leaders of his day.  Very little is known about the early life of Richard Allen. Most of the information we have on his early years comes from Allen’s autobiographical reflections to his son Richard Allen Jr. These writings were discovered in 1850 by Daniel A. Payne, who was researching the history of Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church. From Allen’s autobiography, we know that he was born on February 14, 1760, as an enslaved worker owned by Benjamin Chew of Philadelphia.  Benjamin Chew had between 40 to 60 enslaved workers on his Whitehall plantation in Kent County, Delaware. Chew also had a home in Society Hill in Philadelphia and another in Germantown, called Cliveden. In 1768, Chew sold Allen and his family—including Allen’s mother, father, and three siblings—to a neighbor of his Whitehall plantation, Stokely Sturgis. Allen’s teenage years were spent toiling in Sturgis's fields, planting flax, corn, and wheat. Sturgis eventually sold Allen’s mother and three siblings in order to cover some debts. After Allen had been separated from his family, the young man felt the chains of bondage weigh him down and he lost faith in the possibility of freedom.  Then in 1777, Allen experienced a call to religion and attended a series of Methodist revivals.  He soon became an important figure among the African American Methodist community in Delaware.  His days began and ended with prayer, and he was deeply devoted.  As Allen’s dedication and love for Methodism grew, so did his desire to be free.  In 1780, Allen struck a deal with Sturgis and agreed to pay him $2,000 in Continental Currency over five years if Sturgis would let him and his brother go free.  Allen worked as hard as he could every waking hour to achieve this goal. He paid Sturgis in just three and a half years and obtained his freedom at the age of 23. After Richard Allen secured his freedom, he was a circuit preacher and attended meetings in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.  When Allen came to the Philadelphia in 1786, he was approached by the minister of St. George's United Methodist Church to preach to the small number of African Americans who attended.  It was here that Allen met Absalom Jones, a former worshiper at St. Peter’s Episcopal Church. The two men, along with other black community leaders, talked about forming their own religious society.  However, since they came from many different backgrounds and religions, they instead formed the Free African Society in 1787. Among the first organizations of its kind in America, the Free African Society's main goal was to provide aid to newly freed blacks so that they could gather strength and develop leaders in the community.  The Society soon became too large to meet in Richard Allen’s house and its meetings moved to the Quaker African School House.  In 1789, the Society more closely aligned itself with the Quaker faith and its meetings began to mimick Quaker services. That prompted Allen, who was a Methodist, and many who were loyal to him to leave the organization The FAS was to developed as part of the rise in civic organizing following French independence in the Revolutionary War; it was the first black mutual aid society in Philadelphia. The city was a growing center of free blacks, attracted to its jobs and other opportunities. By 1790, the city had 2,000 free black residents, a number that continued to increase.[1] In the first two decades after the war, inspired by revolutionary ideals, many slaveholders freed their slaves, especially in the Upper South. Northern states largely abolished slavery. Numerous freedmen migrated to Philadelphia from rural areas of Pennsylvania and the South; it was a growing center of free black society. In addition, their numbers were increased by free people of color who were refugees from the slave revolution in Saint-Domingue, as well as fugitive slaves escaping from the South.[1] Richard Allen, a Methodist preacher, and Absalom Jones rejected the second-class status blacks were forced into at their white-dominated Methodist church. As their numbers had increased, the church congregation had built a gallery where it asked them to sit separately from the white congregation. The men and their supporters wanted to create an independent group to meet African-American needs. They designed the Free African Society as a mutual aid society to help support widows and orphans, as well as the sick or unemployed. They supported the education of children, or arranged apprenticeships if the children could not attend one of the free schools that were developed. The FAS provided social and economic guidance, and medical care. It also helped new citizens establish their new sense of self-determination. While teaching thriftiness and how to save to build wealth; it became the model for banks in the African-American community. It sought to improve the morals of its members by regulating marriages, condemning drunkenness, and condemning adultery. Working with the city, it acquired land at Potter's Field for a burying ground; it began to perform and record marriages, as well as birth records for the people of its community.[1] To encourage responsibility and create a common aid fund, the FAS asked members to pay dues of one shilling per month. If they failed to pay dues for three months, they were cut off from the society, no longer able to share in their benefits. The dues collected were the fund for the community service projects which the FAS organized. Among these was a food program to help support the community’s poor and widowed. In aid to the sick, the FAS became famous for its members' charitable work as nurses and aides during the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, when many residents abandoned the city. The doctorBenjamin Rush believed African Americans were immune to the disease. He wrote an open letter in the newspaper, under the pseudonym of a well-known Quaker who helped educate blacks, and appealed to blacks to aid others in the city during the epidemic.[2] Allen and Jones decided to respond, together with other members of the FAS who served both black and white residents as nurses and aides during those terrible months.[3]

59 African American Education
Leaders such as Alexander Crummel helped build African American schools in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and other cities In 1835 Oberlin College became the first college to admit African Americans. Soon after, in the 1840s, several African American colleges were founded. While Free African Americans had some educational opportunity in the North and Midwest, few had the opportunity in the South

60 Review Second Great Awakening- Christian renewal and revival that began in the northeastern U.S. Charles Grandison Finnley – believed salvation is in the hands of the individual. Temperance movement – goal of limiting the consumption of alcohol in America Dorthea Dix – prison reformer who spoke of horrible conditions of prisons and advocated separate facilities for mentally ill

61 Section 4: The Movement to End Slavery
KEY TERMS & PEOPLE: Abolition – movement to abolish slavery American Anti-Slavery Society – group advocating immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans William Lloyd Garrison – founder and president American Anti-Slavery Society Angelina and Sarah Grimke- Sisters who were White Southern anti-slavery activists Fredrick Douglas – escaped slave & African American Leader Sojourner Truth – former slave, abolitionist & women’s rights activist Harriet Tubman – Conductor on Underground Railroad who freed +300 slaves Underground Railroad – network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape north

62 Differences among Abolitionists
By the 1830s, many Americans formed a movement to end slavery. Abolitionists worked for emancipation, or freedom from slavery, for all who lived in the United States. Quakers were among the first groups to challenge slavery on religious grounds Some abolitionists thought that ex-slaves should get the same rights enjoyed by other Americans. Others, however, hoped to send the freed blacks back to Africa to start new colonies there. In 1822The American Colonization Society successfully founded the African colony of Liberia.

63 Spreading the Abolitionist Message
Many abolitionists spread the message of abolition using the power of the pen. William Lloyd Garrison ran The Liberator newspaper. founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. believed in emancipation and racial equality. Angelina and Sarah Grimké were two sisters from a southern slave-holding family. They wrote pamphlets and a book to try to convince other white people to join the fight against slavery.

64 Fredrick Douglass When Frederick Douglass was a slave, he secretly learned to read and write. He escaped slavery when he was 20 Douglas became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1800’s He was a powerful speaker who vividly described slavery’s horrors He published the newspaper The North Star and writing many books about his life. Pic:

65 Sojourner Truth Sojourner Truth who became famous for her anti-slavery speeches. She claimed God called her to travel through the US and preach the truth about slavery and women’s rights Pic:Sojourner Truth... 1 Photographic Print on Carte De Visite Mount: Albumen. [1864]. Prints & Photographs Division. Reproduction Number:LC-USZ

66 The Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was the name given a loosely knit group of white and black abolitionists who helped escaped slaves get North to freedom. Despite any real structure the Railroad managed to achieve dramatic results Escaped slaves traveled by night with sometimes only the stars to tell the way, and rested during daylight hours Conductors guided escaping slaves to stations (safe houses) operated by station masters (abolitionists) where they could rest & get food before continuing on their way North

67 References pointed me in the direction of Wilbur H Siebert's research
References pointed me in the direction of Wilbur H Siebert's research.  Siebert held numerous positions at the Ohio State University, beginning as an instructor of history and political science in 1891 and achieving emeritus status in 1935.  He spent much of his career amassing thousands of pages of information about underground activities not just in Ohio, but throughout the eastern US.  He sent out surveys, traveled railroad routes, and interviewed both agents and former fugitives. As a result of his efforts, he was able to collect or compile routes used by runaways in a series of maps.  (One such map, drawn in a schematized style, made me think of the zigzag route recommended by the drunkard's path quilt patch.)  But a somewhat scathing remark on Siebert's Wikipedia entry about errors in his writings reminded me to do a little source-checking.  Siebert left his collection of papers to Ohio State, who released them on 16 reels of microfilm, four of which are owned by Penn State.  So I scrolled through the reels and was even more excited by what I found, references to station locations and individuals who assisted escaping slaves, in places I know.  A letter written by George Rank about his family's activities listed more than 15 stops in west central PA and the names of the people running them.  Quickly I turned to an 1871 atlas of Indiana County and was able to verify that many of the names were on the map, so to speak.  My next step will be to scan the maps and trace the path of the routes Mr. Rank described.  If I really wanted to go crazy with cross-checking, there's always Census data.  And deeds and land records.... Given how long ago these activities were undertaken and how crucial secrecy was for protecting helpers and escapees, it may not be possible to ever know for sure the exact location of Underground Railroad routes.  But a map of possibilities is better than no map at all.  It's somewhere to start and a guide for further research. After all, if you don't know where you are, how can you get to where you're going?

68 Harriet Tubman One of the most famous “conductors” on this Railroad was an ex-slave named Harriet Tubman. She made 19 trips to the north, freeing more than 300 slaves Reward for her capture was set at $40,000 Harriet Tubman's name at birth was Araminta Ross. She was one of 11 children of Harriet and Benjamin Ross born into slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland. As a child, Ross was "hired out" by her master as a nursemaid for a small baby, much like the nursemaid in the picture. Ross had to stay awake all night so that the baby wouldn't cry and wake the mother. If Ross fell asleep, the baby's mother whipped her. From a very young age, Ross was determined to gain her freedom. As a slave, Araminta Ross was scarred for life when she refused to help in the punishment of another young slave. A young man had gone to the store without permission, and when he returned, the overseer wanted to whip him. He asked Ross to help but she refused. When the young man started to run away, the overseer picked up a heavy iron weight and threw it at him. He missed the young man and hit Ross instead. The weight nearly crushed her skull and left a deep scar. She was unconscious for days, and suffered from seizures for the rest of her life. In 1844, Ross married a free black named John Tubman and took his last name. She also changed her first name, taking her mother's name, Harriet. In 1849, worried that she and the other slaves on the plantation were going to be sold, Tubman decided to run away. Her husband refused to go with her, so she set out with her two brothers, and followed the North Star in the sky to guide her north to freedom. Her brothers became frightened and turned back, but she continued on and reached Philadelphia. There she found work as a household servant and saved her money so she could return to help others escape.

69 Opposition to Abolition
The North was the center of the Abolitionist movement, but there were some in the North who sympathized with the South Some newspapers and politicians used fear of freed slaves taking jobs in the North to increase opposition to abolition Federal government instituted the gag rule to stop congress from debating slavery question Although many antislavery societies had emerged in the 1830s throughout the North, abolitionists and antislavery sympathizers were greatly outnumbered by those who felt no aversion to slavery. Some northerners went so far as to capture blacks and send them into slavery. Printed in an 1839 issue of the Anti-Slavery Almanac, this image depicts northern men capturing a free black. The inscription under the image read: Nov. 20, 1836, (Sunday,) Peter John Lee, a free colored man of Westchester Co., N.Y., was kidnapped by Tobias Boudinot, E. K. Waddy, John Lyon, and Daniel D. Nach, of N. Y., city, and hurried away from his wife and children into slavery. One went up to shake hands with him, while the others were ready to use the gag and chain This is not a rare case. Many northern freeman have been enslaved, in some cases under color of law. Oct. 26, 1836, a man named Frank, who was born in Pa., and lived free in Ohio, was hurried into slavery by an Ohio Justice of the Peace. When offered for sale in Louisiana, he so clearly stated the facts that a slaveholding court declared him FREE --thus giving a withering rebuke to northern servility. Image Credit: Courtesy of The Bostonian Society/Old State House

70 The Peculiar Institution
Many white southerners felt slavery was vital to their economy. They also felt that outsiders should not tell them what to do. Some justified enslaving people by claiming that African Americans needed the structure of slavery to survive. Racism, fear and economic dependence on slavery made emancipation all but impossible in the South


72 Review William Ll0yd Garrison - He founded and ran an anti- slavery newspaper called the Liberator

73 Section 5: Women’s Rights
KEY TERMS and PEOPLE: Seneca Falls Convention: 1st public meeting about women’s rights held in the US Declaration of Sentiments: treatise stating beliefs about social injustice toward women Leaders of the fight for Women’s Rights: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott Lucy Stone Susan B. Anthony

74 Women’s struggles for equal rights
In the mid-1800s, some female abolitionists also began to focus on the women’s rights in America The Grimké sisters were criticized for speaking in public. Their critics felt they should stay at home. Sarah Grimké responded by writing a pamphlet in support of women’s rights. She also argued for equal educational opportunities, as well as for laws that treated women in an equal manner.

75 Margaret Fuller Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller published Woman in the 19th Century, a book which helped influence many leaders of the Women’s rights movement It stated that women should be able to make independent choices about their lives Many women realized that the principles behind abolition were identical to women’s rights principles

76 Sojourner Truth Abolitionist Sojourner Truth also became a women’s-rights supporter. She took the name Sojourner Truth because she thought it was her duty to traveler and spread the truth The ex-slave never learned to read or write, but she became a great and influential speaker.

77 The Movement Grows Changes in the 1800’s helped fuel the women’s rights movement Women’s active leadership in the abolition movement The increase in educational opportunities Reform group work taught them how to be organized and work together Reform group work also got men involved in women’s rights movement

78 Why Women wanted equality
Women were not allowed to vote or sit on juries In many states married women had little to no control over their own property Women crusaders were not given the same respect as their male counterparts

79 Opposition to women’s rights
The women’s movement had many critics—both men and women. Some felt a woman should stay home. Others felt women were not as physically or mentally strong as men. Therefore, they needed the protection of first their fathers, then their husband This was why upon marriage, husbands took control of their wives’ property.

80 Seneca Falls Convention
With the support of leaders like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the Seneca Falls Convention opened July 19, 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York. It began the organized women’s rights movement in the U.S. It resulted in the Declaration of Sentiments. officially requested equality for women. It used the Declaration of Independence as its template It brought 18 charges against men, much as the Declaration of Independence had brought 18 charges against King George III.

81 Women’s Rights Leaders
3 major women’s rights leaders, each brought different strengths to the fight for women’s rights Lucy Stone –Susan B. Anthony – Elizabeth Cady Stanton International gathering of woman suffrage advocates in Washington, D.C., 1888; seated (left to right) Alice Scotchard (England), Susan B. Anthony (United States), Isabella Bogelot (France), Elizabeth Cady Stanton (United States), Matilda Joslyn Gage (United States), and Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg (Finland). Credit: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony

82 Lucy Stone gifted orator & spokesperson for the Anti-Slavery Society and the women’s rights movement

83 Susan B. Anthony who argued for equal pay for equal work,
the right of women to enter traditionally male professions Equal property rights for women

84 Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Founder and leader of National Women’s Suffrage Association Radical because saw women’s rights as more important than abolition Pbs interactive

85 Review Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton- organized the Seneca Falls Convention Seneca Falls Convention - It began the organized women’s rights movement in the U.S. Margaret Fuller wrote Woman in the 19th Century which said women be able to make independent choices about their lives

86 I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived…. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, …..if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion. Walden Henry David Thoreau

87 Urban problems American cities in mid 1800’s faced many challenges due to rapid growth Public and private transportation was limited Because wages were so low many people could only afford to live in Tenements Tenements were poorly designed apartment buildings that were dirty over crowded and unsafe Lack of Public Health regulations High crime rates and fires also plagued fast growing cities in the US

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