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Chapter 9 Religion and Reform. Section 1 Middle-Class Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Religion and Reform. Section 1 Middle-Class Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Religion and Reform

2 Section 1 Middle-Class Reform

3 3 I.Explain how revivalists and transcendentalists influenced the reform movement. A. Protestant Revivalists 1) Protestant revivalists preached the message that people are capable of shaping their own destinies B. Charles Grandison Finney 1) Common-sense emphasized individual’s power to reform themselves C. Lyman Beecher 1) good people would make a good country

4 4 I.Explain how revivalists and transcendentalists influenced the reform movement. D. Transcendentalists 1) rise above 2) transcendentalism – movement inspired by philosophers and writers – Concord, Mass 3) process of spiritual discovery and insight – self-reliant 4) Ralph Waldo Emerson – poet 5) Henry David Thoreau - Walden

5 5 II. Describe reform efforts in such areas as temperance, public education, and prisons. A. Temperance Movement – movement opposing alcohol consumption 1) Reform Effort a) abstinence – avoiding the drinking of alcoholic beverages 2) Impact of the Temperance Movement a) alcohol consumption dropped dramatically

6 6 II. Describe reform efforts in such areas as temperance, public education, and prisons. B. Public Education 1) Main goal of education reform was to train the young to be informed, responsible citizens 2) Horace Mann – tax-supported public schools – literate citizens 3) Moral Education – self-discipline and good citizenship 4) Limits of Reform- a) schools were more common in the North b) more common in urban areas c) segregated – keep the races apart

7 7 II. Describe reform efforts in such areas as temperance, public education, and prisons. C. Reforming Prisons 1) prison reformers hoped to achieve more humane conditions in prisons 2) Dorothea Dix – prison and mental health reformer

8 8 III. Explain why utopian communities were formed and why most did not last long. A. Utopian Communities – groups in search of social and political perfection 1) people lived as equals – free from trouble 2) to create places that were free from the ill effects of urban growth

9 Section 2 The Anti-Slavery Movement

10 10 I.Summarize the growth of the abolitionist movement, including divisions among abolitionists. A. Growth of the Movement 1) Abolitionists Movement – worked to end slavery B. Roots of Abolitionism 1) earliest known protest against slavery came from religious groups 2) emancipation – freeing of enslaved persons

11 11 I.Summarize the growth of the abolitionist movement, including divisions among abolitionists. C. Colonization of Liberia 1) send free and emancipated blacks to Africa 2) American Colonization Society a) promoted migration of free blacks to Africa b) West African country of Liberia in 1822 c) plan offended most African Americans D. Radical Abolitionism 1) William Lloyd Garrison – The Liberator 2) radical abolitionists demanded immediate emancipation of slaves

12 12 I.Summarize the growth of the abolitionist movement, including divisions among abolitionists. E. Frederick Douglass 1) most influential African American abolitionist 2) started the abolitionist newspaper North Star F. Divisions Among Abolitionists 1) one main source of division was the right of women to speak at meetings a) Sojourner Truth

13 13 II. Explain the operation of the Underground Railroad. A. Underground Railroad 1) Harriet Tubman “Black Moses” – used this to escape to freedom 2) a network of escape routes that provided protection and transportation for slaves fleeing North to freedom 3) carried out in secret

14 14 III. Describe the types of resistance that abolitionists met in the North and the South. A. Opposition in the North 1) based on trade – free blacks accepted lower wages than whites B. Opposition in the South 1) gag rule – Southerners in Congress passed laws that prohibited anti-slavery petitions from being read or acted on in the House of Representatives

15 Section 3 The Movement for Women’s Rights

16 16 I. Describe how women used their private roles to influence American society. A. Private Role for Women 1) In the early 1800s most Americans thought that women should not speak at a public meeting 2) Industrialization brought freedom from time consuming chores mainly for middle-class women B. Reform at Home 1) Catherine Beecher believed that women should spend their energy improving their families

17 17 II. Explain how reform movements increased the public role for women. A. Fighting for Abolition 1) Working in the abolitionist movement gave women experience in seeking political change B. Women’s Rights Movement 1) The World Anti-Slavery Convention in 1840 prohibited women from participating 2) The women’s movement compared the status of women with that of enslaved African Americans

18 18 III. Summarize the Seneca Falls Convention for women’s rights. A. Seneca Falls Convention 1) first women’s rights convention in United States 2) Elizabeth Cady Staton presented a statement of demands called a Declaration of Sentiments 3) Suffrage – right to vote B. Slow Progress for Women’s Rights 1) As a result of the early women’s movement, women began to graduate from college

19 Section 4 Growing Divisions

20 20 I. Describe the causes and effects of the huge rise in immigration to the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. A. Rising Immigration 1) When immigrants came to the United States, they settled mostly in the North and West 2) Slave labor in the South offered few job opportunities

21 21 I. Describe the causes and effects of the huge rise in immigration to the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. A. Rising Immigration 3) Most immigrants came from Northern Europe a) Irish 1) Irish Potato Famine – famine in Ireland led to a surge of immigration to the United States 2) Naturalization – applied for and granted American citizenship b) German 1) peasants who bought farmland in the Midwest

22 22 I. Describe the causes and effects of the huge rise in immigration to the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. B. New Cultures 1) In the early 1800s native-born Americans were mostly Protestant, and new immigrants were mostly Catholic C. Immigrants face hostility 1) Discrimination – unequal treatment of a group of people because of their nationality, race, sex, or religion 2) Irish immigrants generally would work for less pay than union laborers

23 23 II. Analyze why the reform movement deepened cultural differences between the North and the South. A. Divided Churches 1) The Methodists and Baptist churches split over the issue of slavery B. South holds on to traditions 1) Reformers’ calls for equal rights for women offended many white Southerners’ sense of honor

24 24 II. Analyze why the reform movement deepened cultural differences between the North and the South. C. By the mid-1800s 1) the roles of Southern women were generally more traditional than Northern women 2) cultural differences between the North and the South were widening


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