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Chapter 14 New Movements in America 1815 - 1850. I. Immigrants and Urban Challenges Between 1840-1860 – 4 million European immigrants Irish Potato Famine.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 New Movements in America 1815 - 1850. I. Immigrants and Urban Challenges Between 1840-1860 – 4 million European immigrants Irish Potato Famine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 New Movements in America

2 I. Immigrants and Urban Challenges Between – 4 million European immigrants Irish Potato Famine – 1841 – potato blight (fungus) kills Irish potatoes – Irish go to U.S. to escape starvation – Very poor, worked unskilled jobs in cities, low wages German Revolution – 1848 – revolution against harsh rule fails – Germans go to U.S. to escape political persecution – Settled in Midwest on farms and rural areas – Some worked low paying jobs (seamstress, bricklayer, clerks, etc.)

3 Anti-Immigration Movements Native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants willing to work for less Nativists: Americans opposed to immigration 1849 – Know-Nothing Party: supported measures making it difficult for foreigners to hold public office

4 Rapid Growth of Cities Cities grow because of jobs and transportation Middle Class: social and economic level between the wealthy and the poor Entertainment – Libraries – Theater and concerts – Playing cards – Bowling, boxing, baseball New York Knickerbockers 1862

5 Urban Problems City residents lived near workplaces – many lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people Dangers: – No clean water – No health regulations – Fire – Crime – Ways to remove waste

6 II. American Arts Transcendentalism: belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life (simplicity and individualism) Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller Utopian Communities: groups of people who tried to form perfect societies

7 American Romanticism Great interest in nature, emphasis on individual expression, and rejection of established rules Artists: – Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter – Herman Melville – Moby Dick – Edgar Allan Poe – “The Raven” – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – “The Song of Hiawatha” – Walt Whitman – Leaves of Grass – Emily Dickinson – well known female poet

8 III. Reforming Society Second Great Awakening: s – Christian renewal movement – led to movements to fix social problems Temperance Movement: urged people to stop drinking alcohol – thought alcohol caused violence, poverty, and crime

9 Prison Reform Dorthea Dix: reformed prison cells and treatment of prisoners – created hospitals for mentally ill Others built reform schools for children

10 Improvements in Education Common School Movement: children were taught in a common place, regardless of background – created by Horace Mann Schools and colleges for women opened Thomas Gallaudet: founded first free school for the hearing impaired in 1817

11 African American Communities African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church 1835 – Oberlin College becomes first to accept African Americans Some opportunity to attend schools in North and Midwest – very limited in South – – illegal for slaves to learn to read and write – slaveholders feared revolt

12 IV. The Movement to End Slavery Abolition: complete end to slavery Quakers were among the first abolitionists Abolitionists differed though on treatment of African Americans Colonization: establish a colony for free slaves in Africa - Liberia

13 Famous Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison: published The Liberator – founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 Sarah and Angelina Grimke: white southerners – wrote Appeal to the Christian Women of the South in 1836

14 Famous Abolitionist Frederick Douglass: escaped slave who learned to read and write – published The North Star Sojourner Truth: former slave who gave dramatic anti-slavery speeches

15 The Underground Railroad Network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitive or escaped slaves Harriet Tubman: most famous “conductor” – helped over 300 slaves to freedom

16 Opposition to Ending Slavery Northern workers feared freed slaves would take their jobs Southerners saw it as a threat to way of life socially and economically Gag Rule: forbade House of Representatives to discuss anti-slavery petitions – overturned by John Quincy Adams as violation of 1 st Amendment

17 V. Women’s Rights Fighting for African American rights led many female abolitionists to fight for women’s rights Margaret Fuller: wrote Women in the 19 th Century in 1845 – stressed individualism Critics of women’s rights pointed to traditional roles for women in the home

18 Seneca Fall Convention First public meeting about women’s rights held in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott Declaration of Sentiments: detailed beliefs about social injustice toward women – modeled after Declaration of Independence

19 Famous Women’s Rights Leaders Lucy Stone: gifted women’s rights speaker Susan B. Anthony: turned women’s rights into a political movement for equality and voting Elizabeth Cady Stanton: founder of the National Women’s Suffrage (voting) Association


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