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France 1814-48 The July Monarchy. 1830 Revolution – what next? A regency until Charles’ grandson came of age? A republic under the leadership of Lafayette,

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Presentation on theme: "France 1814-48 The July Monarchy. 1830 Revolution – what next? A regency until Charles’ grandson came of age? A republic under the leadership of Lafayette,"— Presentation transcript:

1 France The July Monarchy

2 1830 Revolution – what next? A regency until Charles’ grandson came of age? A republic under the leadership of Lafayette, hero of 1789? Another monarchy under Louis Philippe? Outside chance of another Bonaparte?

3 The July Monarchy Family connection with the Bourbons Father had sympathised with the Revolution Critic of Charles X Family was one of the wealthiest in France

4 Early changes Wealthy wanted to reverse policies of Charles X  New flag  Louis Philippe NOT Louis XIX or Philip VI  “King of the French by the Grace of God & will of the people”

5 Political Changes King could no longer suspend laws & rule by decree Assembly could now propose legislation Electorate increased from 94,000 to almost 130,000 Power of Church reduced - now the religion ‘practised by the majority’

6 Two views of seen as Start for more political Change & Social reform REFORM POLITICAL CHANGE 1830 only chance to change the King. Wished to preserve status quo STABILITY POLITICAL STAGNATION ‘ The Party of Movement ’ ‘ The Party Of Resistance ’

7 Challenges to Louis-Philippe Bonapartists – gave support to Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Wanted return to days of glory. 2 failed coups, 1836 & 1840 Legitimists – gave support to son of Duc de Berri. Attempted coup 1832 Republicans – no distinct party – lot of support from poorer classes. Led by middle class activists who wanted more democratic system. Biggest threat to Louis Philippe

8 Political Opposition LP position rested on narrow social elite He was determined to rule and not to allow parliament to dominate French politics Middle classes became increasingly angry at exclusion from politics LP’s refusals to listen to demands for social reforms strengthened socialist cause

9 The Impact of the Industrial Revolution By 1830 France undergoing industrial revolution – impact of urbanisation Strikes in various cities LP’s govt supported bosses – soldiers sent in to break up strikes Number of armed uprisings brutally suppressed Growth in socialism

10 Foreign Policy (1) “La France, s’ennuie” (Lamartine) First chance at glory was Belgium LP reluctant to offer challenge to settlement of 1815 Worked closely with GB Safe but boring!

11 Foreign Policy (2) Support given to Mehemet Ali in his conflict with Turkey Other Great Powers opted to support Sultan so France left isolated MA’s forces pushed out of Syria and was further punished Loss of face for the French

12 Foreign Policy (3) Guizot and the Spanish Marriages Plan was to unite French & Spanish thrones through marriage of LP’s son & Spanish Infanta Plan failed through Queen producing heir Only result was to annoy Britain No support offered in 1848

13 Domestic Issues (1) Louis Philippe was king neither by divine right nor popular mandate Rise to power was carefully engineered compromise to restrain republicans & to protect property owners from Bourbons Political frustration was one of key factors in fall of LP in 1848 ‘Never, never, will the time come for universal suffrage.’

14 Domestic Issues (2) “They may do what they like but they shall not prevent me from driving my own coach” From May 1832 to October 1840 had no less than 10 chief ministers Corruption used to control parliament Freedom of press curtailed – journalists tried without juries

15 Domestic Issues (3) By 1847 economic & social conditions in France attracting widespread interest Government unable or unwilling to address issues Labour relations poor – much working class discontent Brutal force used by government to repress opposition

16 Domestic Issues (4) Between 1841 and 1845 some social legislation passed but not enough to satisfy demands for extension of the vote Bad weather led to poor harvests and caused rising food prices Bakeries & food shops looted In towns businesses failed & factories closed adding to the unemployed Series of government scandals now unfolded

17 Domestic Issues (4) Thiers introduced amendment to increase franchise – rejected by Guizot Liberal opposition turned to external pressure – the Reform Banquets Aim to share power, not take it from rulers Cancelled banquet led to spontaneous demo National Guard reluctant but actions sparked violent reaction King soon abdicated

18 Final Thoughts! 2 nd attempt to establish constit monarchy had failed for more or less same reason as the first King determined to rule & m/class who were largely excluded from political power were not prepared to accept this Working class roused by economic problems – no support from m/class for LP


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