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Absolute Monarchy Objective: Identify what factors allowed absolute monarchs to gain power in Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchy Objective: Identify what factors allowed absolute monarchs to gain power in Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolute Monarchy Objective: Identify what factors allowed absolute monarchs to gain power in Europe.

2 Factors leading to Absolute Monarchs Crusades killed many feudal lords Crusades killed many feudal lords Rising middle class supported monarch to protect property and trade Rising middle class supported monarch to protect property and trade Reformation gave powers formerly held by Catholic Church Reformation gave powers formerly held by Catholic Church Spirit of nationalism made monarch a symbol of unity Spirit of nationalism made monarch a symbol of unity

3 Divine Right King ruled by Gods authority King ruled by Gods authority Obedience to king was obedience to God Obedience to king was obedience to God King could do no wrong King could do no wrong

4 Rise of the Nation-State Began when a strong ruler expanded control to a larger area Began when a strong ruler expanded control to a larger area Eventually, monarch rule free from external political or religious control Eventually, monarch rule free from external political or religious control In England and France the monarch united people of a common nationality (similar language, customs, history) In England and France the monarch united people of a common nationality (similar language, customs, history) People transferred loyalty from local lord to monarch & nation People transferred loyalty from local lord to monarch & nation

5 Case Study: Absolute Monarchy France Louis XIV (Bourbon Dynasty) Louis XIV (Bourbon Dynasty) Most powerful monarch in French history Most powerful monarch in French history Dissenters and critics were punished Dissenters and critics were punished Interfered in economic and religious lives of his subjects Interfered in economic and religious lives of his subjects Demanded the Huguenots (French Protestants) convert to Catholicism or leave Demanded the Huguenots (French Protestants) convert to Catholicism or leave Built magnificent Palace of Versailles Built magnificent Palace of Versailles

6 Palace of Versailles Cost of palace weakened French finances Cost of palace weakened French finances Became ideal of European royalty Became ideal of European royalty French became language of diplomacy throughout Europe French became language of diplomacy throughout Europe

7 Jean Colbert Louis XIVs most outstanding financial advisor Louis XIVs most outstanding financial advisor Promoted Mercantilism: economic system based on idea that a countrys wealth is measured by amt. of gold & silver it has Promoted Mercantilism: economic system based on idea that a countrys wealth is measured by amt. of gold & silver it has Caused govt interference in nations industry & trade Caused govt interference in nations industry & trade

8 Conclusion Louis XIV involved France in series of wars to expand French Frontier Louis XIV involved France in series of wars to expand French Frontier In the end, his aggressive actions served to unite rest of Europe against France In the end, his aggressive actions served to unite rest of Europe against France France was left bankrupt & exhausted France was left bankrupt & exhausted

9 England: A Case Study in Limited Monarchy Monarchs not able to establish absolute rule Monarchs not able to establish absolute rule Middle Ages: strong checks placed on kings authority Middle Ages: strong checks placed on kings authority King John ( ) – heavy taxes & abuses of power King John ( ) – heavy taxes & abuses of power Nobles and church threatened civil war and forced him to sign the Magna Carta Nobles and church threatened civil war and forced him to sign the Magna Carta

10 Magna Carta Great Charter (Latin) Trial by jury for all freemen (small number in 1215) Trial by jury for all freemen (small number in 1215) Right to a trial Right to a trial King can not levy taxes without agreement of people King can not levy taxes without agreement of people Power of the law is greater than the power of the king Power of the law is greater than the power of the king Considered the cornerstone of English democracy and later became basis for English political liberties Considered the cornerstone of English democracy and later became basis for English political liberties

11 The Tudor Dynasty: Almost Absolute Monarchy Henry VIII ( )- broke with church because Pope refused to grant him a divorce to Spanish wife: Catherine of Aragon Henry VIII ( )- broke with church because Pope refused to grant him a divorce to Spanish wife: Catherine of Aragon Induced parliament to pass Act of Supremacy which instituted independent Anglican Church of England with king as religious leader Induced parliament to pass Act of Supremacy which instituted independent Anglican Church of England with king as religious leader Married Anne Boleyn, their daughter later became Queen Elizabeth I Married Anne Boleyn, their daughter later became Queen Elizabeth I

12 Elizabeth I Queen of England ( ) Queen of England ( ) Encouraged trade, art, & literature Encouraged trade, art, & literature Transformed England into leading world power Transformed England into leading world power Preserved Protestantism in England Preserved Protestantism in England

13 Key Difference in England Legislative Assembly : Parliament made up of House of Lords and House of Commons Legislative Assembly : Parliament made up of House of Lords and House of Commons Tudors in England allowed the English parliament to retain its powers to make laws and levy taxes Tudors in England allowed the English parliament to retain its powers to make laws and levy taxes Henry VIII & daughter Elizabeth I were almost absolute rulers because they controlled parliament with persuasion, flattery, bribery, or bullying Henry VIII & daughter Elizabeth I were almost absolute rulers because they controlled parliament with persuasion, flattery, bribery, or bullying

14 Absolute Monarchy: A Summary Strengths Weakened forces that tended to disunite a country Weakened forces that tended to disunite a country Provided strong central government Provided strong central government Furthered the growth of national states Furthered the growth of national states Weaknesses One nations welfare was dependent on one person One nations welfare was dependent on one person Often sacrificed national interest for kings personal interest Often sacrificed national interest for kings personal interest Countless wars Countless wars Disregarded needs of common people Disregarded needs of common people


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