2Overview.After the Napoleonic wars and the peace treaty of 1815, the monarchy was restored in France, with a younger brother of Louis XVI.During the whole of the 19th century in France, people tried to find the right balance between the monarchists – who wanted a return to the Ancien Régime and the republicans, who wanted a more liberal government.
3The communards of 1871 pull down the statue of the Emperor. Les revolutions.The whole century is remarkable for its revolts and revolutionsIn general, revolutions tend to be of economic, social or political origin.The communards of pull down the statue of the Emperor.
4What’s a revolution? In France, a revolution could mean: Having concerns about a regime that censors the media, restricts freedoms or liberty or suppresses opposition.Finding suitable slogansDemonstrating in the streetsErecting barricades in the streets against the forces of law and order.Fighting against the forces of law and order and/or the army.
5The revolution of 1830 « The Revolution of 30th July ». The causes. Charles X (another younger brother of Louis XVI) ruled like a king of the Ancien Regime.He cancelled elections and suppressed the freedom of the press.
6The revolution of 1830 The events: The Parisians threw up street barricades and forced the King to leave the capital.
7The révolution of 1830 The consequences: The deputies in the National Assembly feared a republic, so they offered the vacant throne to Louis Philippe, the Duke of Orléans.
8The revolution of 1830 The consequences: The events inspired Hugo to write « Les Misérables ».
9The Year of Revolutions - 1848. The slogan:« work or bread; bread or lead".
10The Year of Revolutions - 1848. The cause:Louis Philippe refused to reform an unjust electoral system.
11The Year of Revolutions - 1848. The events:Demonstrations were forbidden so the demonstrators organised banquets in favour of reforms.A big banquet organised in Paris was forbidden, and the students and workers demonstrated.More than a thousand barricades were erected in the streets of the capital.There was general insurrection throughout France.
12The Year of Revolutions - 1848. The consequences:There was fierce fighting in the streets of Paris.Louis Philippe renounced his throne. The Second Republic was proclaimed. However, the new constitution no longer mentioned peoples’ working rights.The repression was terrible. 11 000 workers were arrested and 4 000 were deported to Algeria.
13The coup d’état of 1851 The causes: The Second Republic, had, as its President, the nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte.
14The coup d’état of 1851 The events: President Bonaparte declared himself: « Emperor of the French».His regime called itself « le second Empire ».He called himself: « Napoléon III ».
15The coup d’état of 1851 The consequences: Napoléon III set up an authoritarian regime.He limited personal freedom, censored the press and crushed all opposition.He expelled 70 deputies from the National Assembly (of whom one was Victor Hugo)He confiscated the wealth of the Royal Family.
16The Commune of ParisOften referred to as:« the bloody week".
17The Commune of Paris - 1871. The causes: After the siege of Paris (1870) the Parisians were desperate. They were shamed by the misery and deprivations of the long siege, followed by surrender.New repressive laws had also been introduced.
18The Commune of Paris - 1871. The events: The Parisians allied themselves with the National Guard and the army in Paris. They formed: « la Commune de Paris ».The government had to recruit new soldiers. There was furious hand to hand fighting, street by street – it was a veritable carnage.
19A firing squad executes two “communards”. The Commune of ParisThe consequences:More than 30,000 Parisian « communards » died.The severe repression lasted for many months - 20,000 to35,000 executions, 50,000 arrests, 10,000 imprisoned or deported.A firing squad executes two “communards”.
20And the last French revolution? Was in May 1968And the slogan?« Métro, Boulot, Dodo » or « Métro, Work, Sleep ».
21May 1968The causes:Uni students denounced the attitudes of the government of the time and the middle class, towards the life of the working classes.This was the « Metro, boulot, dodo ». (the daily grind of getting the Metro to work, working for the whole day, and returning home only to fall asleep.)
22May 1968The events:There were violent demonstrations against the forces of law and order in the streets of Paris.The workers and unions united swiftly and called for a national strike.
23Charles de Gaulle, the World War II hero, had to resign as President. May 1968The consequences:France had to accept a very delicate political situation.The President resigned. Later, there were considerable reforms made to the work system.Charles de Gaulle, the World War II hero, had to resign as President.