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The Revolutions of the 19 th Century. Patricia Barry © 2006.

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1 The Revolutions of the 19 th Century. Patricia Barry © 2006.

2 Overview. After the Napoleonic wars and the peace treaty of 1815, the monarchy was restored in France, with a younger brother of Louis XVI. After the Napoleonic wars and the peace treaty of 1815, the monarchy was restored in France, with a younger brother of Louis XVI. During the whole of the 19 th century in France, people tried to find the right balance between the monarchists – who wanted a return to the Ancien Régime and the republicans, who wanted a more liberal government. During the whole of the 19 th century in France, people tried to find the right balance between the monarchists – who wanted a return to the Ancien Régime and the republicans, who wanted a more liberal government.

3 Les revolutions. The whole century is remarkable for its revolts and revolutions The whole century is remarkable for its revolts and revolutions In general, revolutions tend to be of economic, social or political origin. In general, revolutions tend to be of economic, social or political origin. The communards of 1871 pull down the statue of the Emperor.

4 Whats a revolution? In France, a revolution could mean: Having concerns about a regime that censors the media, restricts freedoms or liberty or suppresses opposition. Having concerns about a regime that censors the media, restricts freedoms or liberty or suppresses opposition. Finding suitable slogans Finding suitable slogans Demonstrating in the streets Demonstrating in the streets Erecting barricades in the streets against the forces of law and order. Erecting barricades in the streets against the forces of law and order. Fighting against the forces of law and order and/or the army. Fighting against the forces of law and order and/or the army.

5 The revolution of 1830 « The Revolution of 30 th July ». The causes. The causes. Charles X (another younger brother of Louis XVI) ruled like a king of the Ancien Regime. Charles X (another younger brother of Louis XVI) ruled like a king of the Ancien Regime. He cancelled elections and suppressed the freedom of the press. He cancelled elections and suppressed the freedom of the press.

6 The revolution of 1830 The events: The Parisians threw up street barricades and forced the King to leave the capital. The Parisians threw up street barricades and forced the King to leave the capital.

7 The révolution of 1830 The consequences: The deputies in the National Assembly feared a republic, so they offered the vacant throne to Louis Philippe, the Duke of Orléans. The deputies in the National Assembly feared a republic, so they offered the vacant throne to Louis Philippe, the Duke of Orléans.

8 The revolution of 1830 The consequences: The events inspired Hugo to write « Les Misérables ». The events inspired Hugo to write « Les Misérables ».

9 The Year of Revolutions The slogan: « work or bread; bread or lead". « work or bread; bread or lead".

10 The Year of Revolutions The cause: Louis Philippe refused to reform an unjust electoral system. Louis Philippe refused to reform an unjust electoral system.

11 The Year of Revolutions The events: Demonstrations were forbidden so the demonstrators organised banquets in favour of reforms. Demonstrations were forbidden so the demonstrators organised banquets in favour of reforms. A big banquet organised in Paris was forbidden, and the students and workers demonstrated. A big banquet organised in Paris was forbidden, and the students and workers demonstrated. More than a thousand barricades were erected in the streets of the capital. More than a thousand barricades were erected in the streets of the capital. There was general insurrection throughout France. There was general insurrection throughout France.

12 The Year of Revolutions The consequences: There was fierce fighting in the streets of Paris. There was fierce fighting in the streets of Paris. Louis Philippe renounced his throne. The Second Republic was proclaimed. However, the new constitution no longer mentioned peoples working rights. Louis Philippe renounced his throne. The Second Republic was proclaimed. However, the new constitution no longer mentioned peoples working rights. The repression was terrible workers were arrested and were deported to Algeria. The repression was terrible workers were arrested and were deported to Algeria.

13 The coup détat of 1851 The causes: The Second Republic, had, as its President, the nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. The Second Republic, had, as its President, the nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte.

14 The coup détat of 1851 The events: President Bonaparte declared himself: « Emperor of the French». President Bonaparte declared himself: « Emperor of the French». His regime called itself « le second Empire ». His regime called itself « le second Empire ». He called himself: « Napoléon III ». He called himself: « Napoléon III ».

15 The coup détat of 1851 The consequences: Napoléon III set up an authoritarian regime. Napoléon III set up an authoritarian regime. He limited personal freedom, censored the press and crushed all opposition. He limited personal freedom, censored the press and crushed all opposition. He expelled 70 deputies from the National Assembly (of whom one was Victor Hugo) He expelled 70 deputies from the National Assembly (of whom one was Victor Hugo) He confiscated the wealth of the Royal Family. He confiscated the wealth of the Royal Family.

16 The Commune of Paris Often referred to as: Often referred to as: « the bloody week".

17 The Commune of Paris The causes: After the siege of Paris (1870) the Parisians were desperate. They were shamed by the misery and deprivations of the long siege, followed by surrender. After the siege of Paris (1870) the Parisians were desperate. They were shamed by the misery and deprivations of the long siege, followed by surrender. New repressive laws had also been introduced. New repressive laws had also been introduced.

18 The Commune of Paris The events: The Parisians allied themselves with the National Guard and the army in Paris. They formed: « la Commune de Paris ». The Parisians allied themselves with the National Guard and the army in Paris. They formed: « la Commune de Paris ». The government had to recruit new soldiers. There was furious hand to hand fighting, street by street – it was a veritable carnage. The government had to recruit new soldiers. There was furious hand to hand fighting, street by street – it was a veritable carnage.

19 The Commune of Paris The consequences: More than 30,000 Parisian « communards » died. More than 30,000 Parisian « communards » died. The severe repression lasted for many months - 20,000 to35,000 executions, 50,000 arrests, 10,000 imprisoned or deported. The severe repression lasted for many months - 20,000 to35,000 executions, 50,000 arrests, 10,000 imprisoned or deported. A firing squad executes two communards.

20 And the last French revolution? And the last French revolution? Was in May 1968 Was in May 1968 And the slogan? « Métro, Boulot, Dodo » or « Métro, Work, Sleep ». « Métro, Boulot, Dodo » or « Métro, Work, Sleep ».

21 May 1968 The causes: Uni students denounced the attitudes of the government of the time and the middle class, towards the life of the working classes. Uni students denounced the attitudes of the government of the time and the middle class, towards the life of the working classes. This was the « Metro, boulot, dodo ». (the daily grind of getting the Metro to work, working for the whole day, and returning home only to fall asleep.) This was the « Metro, boulot, dodo ». (the daily grind of getting the Metro to work, working for the whole day, and returning home only to fall asleep.)

22 May 1968 The events: There were violent demonstrations against the forces of law and order in the streets of Paris. There were violent demonstrations against the forces of law and order in the streets of Paris. The workers and unions united swiftly and called for a national strike. The workers and unions united swiftly and called for a national strike.

23 May 1968 The consequences: France had to accept a very delicate political situation. France had to accept a very delicate political situation. The President resigned. Later, there were considerable reforms made to the work system. The President resigned. Later, there were considerable reforms made to the work system. Charles de Gaulle, the World War II hero, had to resign as President.


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