Presentation on theme: "The Restoration. The Restored Bourbons Character of Louis XVIII – what kind of man was he? Good choice as King? The ‘100 Days’ What problems do you think."— Presentation transcript:
The Restored Bourbons Character of Louis XVIII – what kind of man was he? Good choice as King? The ‘100 Days’ What problems do you think he will face? What solutions can you offer him?
Louis XVIII 59 years old, fat & walked with difficulty Dull and uninspiring but not without intelligence Had been in exile for many years Appalled by the Revolution
Support for Louis? Talleyrand worked hard to persuade Allies to restore Louis “wanted for what he stood for rather than for what he really was” Seen as the rightful king of France
What problems will he face? Royalist dreams : Return of privileges and wealth : Not necessarily a return to pre- 1789 : Revenge for suffering in the Revolution : Wished for an end to warfare and economic dislocation
What problems will he face? Republican fears : Return of landowners might lead to loss of land and freedoms : Restoration of Church? : Loss of status and political power Threats from Bonapartists War damaged France?
Early problems Louis, the Army & the civil service The 100 Days 2 nd Treaty of Paris The Ultras & the White Terror ‘La Chambre Introuvable’
What impact did the 100 Days have? Demonstrated fragility of Louis’ support 2 nd Treaty of Paris Severely damaged policy of reconciliation The White Terror
2 nd Treaty of Paris 1 st Treaty of Paris very lenient & seen as honourable settlement By 2 nd Treaty France had to pay indemnity & suffer army of occupation Would this make life easier or more difficult for the new King & his regime?
The Ultras Extreme Royalists Supported Divine Right White Terror followed 2 nd Restoration ‘La Chambre Introuvable” :chance for counter- Revolution?
Successes 1815-1820 Issued Charter – showed intentions Chamber dissolved & franchise altered More moderate assembly elected Growing confidence in regime Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle great success Ultras thwarted
1820-1824 Murder of Duc de Berri huge blow Richlieu recalled to government Start of Ultra revival Beginnings of Charbonnier movement Ultras beginning to join the government 4 sergeants of La Rochelle 1823 Intervention in Spain Death of Louis XVIII
Was Louis a good choice as King? Made good attempt at reconciliation “No great blunders had been made by Louis, but the slide away from moderate policies and towards extreme Royalism had already begun before Charles X officially became king.”
Accession of Charles X Dynasty seemed very secure Support from both Chambers Birth of new heir Young 67 But not all was well!
Charles & pays legal Deeply distrusted by majority PL = 100k allowed to vote Only 15k of richest could be MP Main concern was maintenance of power & position Would challenge any return to despotism
Attitude towards religion Compensation for emigres Treatment of the Press Attitude towards Parliament
Political Parties Constitutionalists Ultras Liberals
Charles & Parliament Strong position in 1824?Polarisation of politics – loss of middle ground Villele unpopular – Charles facing opposition from L & R Charles calls fresh elections 1827 Growing support for opposition Jules de Polignac Charles points new chief minister
Charles X: Final Days 1830 elections to be ‘managed’ Four Ordinances seen as direct challenge to the Charter No action taken to prevent any possible action by opposition ‘3 Glorious Days’ saw abdication in 1830