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Germany Introduction By S. Angelo Head Teacher History

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1 Germany Introduction By S. Angelo Head Teacher History
East Hills Girls Technology High School

2 German History: Problems
Much of German History is clouded by the results of World War II and Nazism Much of the progressive and humane aspects of German social and political spheres have been overshadowed by the military and more extreme forces Historians have often tried to explain the development of Nazism by linking it to a concept of “German” or as part of a national characteristic that developed as a result of historical circumstances

3 The German Nation Germany as a state did not exist until 1871
Germany described a locality where people spoke German rather than a nation of people In 1789, just before the French Revolution, this locality consisted of about 300 different “states” mostly rules by kings The most powerful were Prussia and Austria

4 Effects of the Napoleonic Wars
The ideas of liberalism spread by Napoleon’s armies throughout Europe Liberalism = freeing up of economic life In 1813 Austria and Prussia fought against Napoleon and won in 1815 This, however, only resulted in an attempt to restore the pre revolutionary status quo

5 Congress of Vienna Von Metternich – Austrian Chancellor dominated the congress – he was a conservative (believed in traditional values) This resulted in a return to the previous divisions of Germany monarchies but in a simplified form This resulted in a reduction to only 38 states He also ensured that Austria continued to dominate German affairs and formed a Germanic Confederation

6 Germanic Confederation
This was a loose federal body joining the governments of the German speaking states Through this, von Metternich & other conservatives hoped to reinstate/restore traditional institutions (Church, monarchy, nobility, landowners) Forces of order joined to attempt to prevent change – especially from the proletariat

7 The Unification of Germany 1
1815 – 1848 often referred to as the “Age of Metternich” This was a period of struggle between the reactionary policies of Metternich and the forces of change These forces – referred to as liberals – activated for political and economic reform

8 Aims of Liberalism Parliamentary government\
Limitations on monarchs’ powers Civil liberties Free economy Rapid industrialisation Economic growth Demolish aristocratic privilege National unity

9 The Unification of Germany 2
Revolution of 1848 After a series of poor harvests and a downturn of the economy the situation that was ripe for change The news of a successful revolution in Paris led to rioting in Austria and Prussia Prussia was forced to appoint a liberal government Other states followed Late in 1848 the liberal governments were dismissed and conservatives ones appointed This led to a decade of conservative rule

10 Otto von Bismarck 1864 – 1871 Bismarck used Prussian military and economic power to defeat neighbouring countries Set up a conservative German Empire This was the Second Reich Created with “Blood and Iron” Parliament elected by universal suffrage

11 Second Reich Build up of navy and army to dominate Europe and assert itself Strong aggressive ideas predominate Militarism Anti-semitism Social Darwinism

12 Structure of 2nd Reich

13 Weimar Republic Increasingly threatened by liberal and socialist movements in Germany Popular revolution led to creation of Weimar in 1919 Democratic Opposed military traditions Failed to gain support and collapsed in 1933

14 End of Presentation

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