By Rich Mursheno Audience: Anyone wanting to learn about the skeletal system
Anatomy- the study of structure Physiology- the study of function
*Total of 206 bones *Serves as attachment points for organs and softer body tissues *Protect vital organs *movement is carried out by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems *Supports the body *Houses bone marrow tissue (used for blood cell formation) What organs ????
Consists of 80 bones Includes skull, rib cage, vertebral column Supports and protects organs Provides framework for muscles that: (1)adjust positions of neck, head, and trunk (2)perform respiratory movements (3) anchor and stabilize the appendicular bones Axial Skeleton
*Consists of 126 bones *Makes up the appendages and girdles that attach appendages to the body *pectoral girdle consists of the clavicle and scapula. *pelvic girdle is formed by the two coxal bones which are fused anteriorly Appendicular Skeleton
Long Bones *Includes a bone that is longer than it is wide *growth plates (epiphysis) at either end *a hard outer surface of compact bone *a spongy inner known an cancellous bone containing bone marrow *ends of the bone covered in hyaline cartilage to help protect the bone and aid shock absorption
Short Bones *approximately as wide as they are long *primary function of providing support and stability with little movement *consist of only a thin layer of compact, hard bone with cancellous bone on the inside along with relatively large amounts of bone marrow
Flat Bones *strong, flat plates of bone *Function is protection of the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment *Anterior and posterior surfaces are formed of compact bone to provide strength for protection with the center consisting of cancellous (spongy) bone and varying amounts of bone marrow *In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones
Irregular Bones *bones which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape *primarily consist of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone *Protect nervous tissue and serve as an anchor for skeletal muscle attachments
Sesamoid Bones *usually short or irregular bones *usually present in a tendon where it passes over a joint which serves to protect the tendon *modify pressure, to diminish friction, and occasionally to alter the direction of a muscle pull.
*The outer layer of a bone is compact bone, which is hard and dense *The next layer is spongy bone, which is like honeycomb, lighter and slightly flexible *The inner layer of some bones, but not all is bone marrow, which is jelly like *Bone marrow is used for blood cell formation
*Transverse: This type of fracture occurs when the bone breaks clean across. The break is straight across and through, leaving the bone in two pieces. *Oblique: The oblique fracture occurs when the fracture is a result of a diagonal break completely across the bone. *Greenstick: The greenstick fracture occurs when a broken bone isn’t quite separated. transverse obliquegreenstick
*Compression: A compression fracture happens when the bone is crushed and flattened. *Hairline: A thin crack or break in the bone is a hairline fracture, generally associated with stress fractures. *Spiral: A spiral fracture happens when the break twists around the bone. These are more common in injuries where the bone was twisted under pressure. *Impacted: impacted fractures are identified when the fragments of bone are driven into each other.
*It is important to eat the right foods to keep healthy bones *Foods that contain calcium such as dairy products can help bone growth and strength *Throughout your life time it is important to exercise *Even with age you must exercise: it can reduce probability for fractures and chances of getting diseases such as osteoporosis
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