Presentation on theme: "OBHS Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY – The Skeletal System
25 Major Functions There are five major functions of the skeleton: 1. Shape and support2. Movement3. Protection4. Blood Production5. StorageRemember : Should Mothers Protect Babies Skins
3Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones in a way Shape and Support - This is our body's framework. It provides shape for our body, holds our vital organs in place and allows us to have a good posture.Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones in a waywhich allows movement.Protection - Protects our delicate organs e.g.-SKULL protectsthe BRAIN. RIB CAGE protects the HEART and LUNGS etc.Blood Production - Red and white blood cells areproduced in the bone marrow found in many bones.RED CELLS carry oxygen to the muscles to enable them towork. They are red in colour because they carry haemoglobin.WHITE CELLS fight infection in the body.Storage- minerals like calcium are stored in the bones to add strength
5Don’t be confused… The Foot The Chest Clavicle – collar bone Scapula – shoulder bladeThe ArmRadius - thumb side lowerUlna - finger side lowerHumerus - upper arm – “funny bone”The HandCarpals - wrist bonesMetacarpals – handThe FootMetatarsals - footTarsals - ankle –think “T” for “toes”The LegFibula - small lowerTibia - large lowerPatella - knee
6Joints Where bones meet they form JOINTS. The movement of the skeleton is helped byjoints. There are THREE kinds of joints:Fibrous (non-moving e.g.- skull)Cartilagenous (limited movement e.g.-vertebrae of spine)Synovial (a range of movements are available)
7Connective tissue Joints are moved by muscles and bones. These are attached byLIGAMENTS and TENDONS.LIGAMENTS attach boneto bone.TENDONS attach musclee.g.- The knee joint. Movements other than flexion/extension can cause serious ligament damage in hinge joints like the knee. In contact sports like rugby these ligaments are often strained by forces acting in other directions.
8Synovial Joints Most moving joints are SYNOVIAL JOINTS. They are very complexstructures. The Bones arelinked together byligaments and allow a widerange of movements.Features of a synovial joint include:Synovial fluid – Lubricates the jointSynovial Membrane – Seals the jointSynovial Capsule - Surround the joint to prevent leakageThe knee is an example of a synovial joint
9Joints Cont’d Joints can be separated into FOUR categories: Ball and Socket jointHinge jointGliding jointPivot joint
10Quiz 9/5 What bones make up the following parts of the body The Arm 1. 2.3.The Leg4.5.6.The Hand184.108.40.206. What sort of joint is the shoulder ?
111. Ball and SocketDefinition: A ball-shaped bone end fits into a socket or cup-shaped bone.Examples:1. Hip2. ShoulderMovements: A multiaxial joint allowingmovement in many directions around the joint.The movements possible are:1. Back and forth (extension/flexion)2. Side to side (abduction/adduction)3. Rotation4. Circumduction
122. HingeDefinition: Two bones join in such a way that movement is possible only in one direction, usually at right angles to the bones.Examples:1. Elbow2. Knee3. AnkleMovements: A uniaxial joint allowing movement in only one directionThe only movement possible is:Back and forth (extension/flexion)
133. GlidingDefinition: The bone surfaces are small and flat, or slightly concave and one bones slides over the other.Examples:1. Carpals and tarsals2. Ribs and vertebrae3. Scapula and ribsMovements: Only slight movement is possible due to the restrictions of attached ligaments.Movements possible are:1. side to side (abduction / adduction)2. Back and forth (extension/flexion)
144. PivotDefinition: A joint constructed in such a way that rotation only is possible (usually about the long axis of the bone)Examples:1. Atlas and axis of neck2. Radius and humerousMovements: A uniaxial joint allowing movement in only one directionThe only movement possible is:Rotation
15Quiz – Anatomy 12/5 1. 5. 2. 6. 7. 3. 8. 4. What sort of joints are the following9. Shoulder10. Elbow11. Knee12. Ribs and vertebrae220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.
16Today 12/5Learn the language used to describe movement in the human body
17Types of Movement There are many types of movement that the skeleton and muscles can produce. The followingare the most common:FlexionExtensionRotationAbductionAdductionDorsiflexionPlantarflexion
183.7. Movements at Synovial Joints Just as we learnt a set of terms to describe the positioning of bones, muscles and organs in the body, so we have a set of terms to describe how joints move.TermDefinitionExamplesFlexionBending or decreasing the angle between two bones
19Straightening or increasing the angle between two bones TermDefinitionExamplesExtensionStraightening or increasing the angle between two bones
20Term Definition Examples AbductionMoving a limb or part of a limb away from the midline of the bodyMoving outwards on a star jumpAdductionMoving a limb or part of a limb towards the midline of the bodyBringing the limbs back together in a star jumpCircumductionA combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction.The movement of the limb resembles the shape of a coneThe arm stroke inButterfly
21Term Definition Examples RotationTwisting of a limb about its long axisTurning the headTwistingthe trunkSupinationMovement of the hand into a palm-up positionHolding a bowl of soupTurning a card overTurning a page in a bookPronationMovement of the hand into a palm-down position tipping the soup outTurning a card face downClosing a book
22Term Definition Examples InversionMovement of the sole of the foot inwardEversionMovement of the sole of the foot outwardDorsi flexionMovement of the top of the foot upward, closer to the shinPlantar flexionMovement of the sole of the foot downward
24Types of Movement cont’d FLEXION – Bending the joint.E.g. Bending the knee or elbow. BALL and SOCKET and HINGE are the main joint types that can produce this movement.
25Types of Movement cont’d EXTENSION of a joint is where the joint is straightened.BALL and SOCKET and HINGE joints are commonexamples of joints that can produce this movement.Straightening the leg when striking a ball is an example of EXTENSION at the knee (HINGE JOINT)
26Types of Movement cont’d The ROTATION movement can occur at a BALLand SOCKET and a PIVOT joint. e.g. turning thehead or the movement at the shoulder whenswimming backstroke.
27Types of Movement cont’d ABDUCTION and ADDUCTION movements can beproduced by BALL and SOCKET joints. ABDUCTION iswhere a limb moves away from the centre of the body.ADDUCTION is where the limb is moved TOWARDS the centre of the body.
28Joints and Performance Injuries to joints can occur from:Over use (Too much training)Incorrect movement injuries (e.g.-wrong techniques)Impact or twisting (e.g.-twist of knee or elbow from a tackle or collision)Such injuries should be iced immediately, given plenty rest, elevated and compressed to aid recovery and avoid permanent damage.sports injuries clip
30Types of Muscle In the Human Body there are 3 different types of muscle. These are:SMOOTH – Also known as INVOLUNTARY muscles. Found in the internal organs such as the intestine. They are named as such because we do not have conscious control over them.CARDIAC – Found only in the heart. We cannot control it and it is constantly working. It enables blood to be pumped from the heart to the body.SKELETAL – Often called VOLUNTARY or STRIPED muscle. It enables us to move and is under our conscious control.
31Muscles for Endurance and Power Muscles are made up of lots of individual fibres. In skeletal muscle,these fibres are either FAST TWITCH or SLOW TWITCH. Both havetheir different roles … Fast twitch for power, slow twitch forendurance.Fast twitch fibrescontract very quickly and powerfully,get tired fastuseful for explosive, short duration activitiesEg sprinting and weightlifting.Slow twitch fibrescontract more slowly and with less forcedon't get tired as quicklyuseful for endurance activitiesEg Swimming and running
32Muscles for Endurance and Power Slow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but they don't get tired as quickly. They are useful for endurance activities.Everyone has a similar number of muscle fibres, but it is the proportion of fast twitch to slow twitch fibres that differs.You cannot change the amount of slow or fast twitch muscle fibres that you have, but you can train them to work more effectively.
33The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles Skeletal muscle responds to training andexercise (or lack of it) in two ways.Regular training and exercise can creategreater muscle development(HYPERTROPHY).Too much inactivity causes musclewastage (ATROPHY)
34The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles When we exercise our bodies regularly and with heavy workloads(normally ANAEROBIC), muscle fibre size increases until themuscle has become large and strong enough to do the tasksrequired of them.Carrying heavy, bulked muscle does not help endurance athletes so the muscles adapt to using the energy efficiently, and normally will only grow to the maximum size that they need to be.
35Remember what ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS Do!!!!! How the Muscles MoveTo make a joint move in twodirections, you need two musclesthat work in opposite directions.ANTAGONISTIC muscles are pairsof muscles that work against eachother.One muscle contracts. This iscalled the AGONIST or PRIMEMOVER. The other one relaxes.This is called the ANTAGONISTRemember what ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS Do!!!!!
36Term Definition 1. Agonist (Prime Mover) A. Movement of the sole of the foot downward2. ExtensionB. The muscle that relaxes during a movement3. AbductionC. Straightening a joint4. FlexionD. Bending a joint5. AntagonistE. Movement of sole of foot towards the shine6. AdductionF. Moving a limb towards the midline of the body7. Plantar FlexionG. The muscle that contracts, creating the movement8. Dorsi FlexionH. Moving a limb away from the midline of the body
37Today Recap the Muscular System Create your own labelled diagram of the muscular systemDescribe movement of sporting examples using correct anatomical languageGo over Homework sheetAnatomy and movement bingo
38The Muscular System Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Deltoids Erector Spinae Biceps Gluteus MaximusTriceps HamstringsPectoralis Major GastrocnemiusAbdominals Hip FlexorsQuadricepsTibialis Anterior
40Function and Movement of Major Muscles Deltoid – Flexes, Extends and Abducts your arm at the shoulder.
41Function and Movement of Major Muscles Biceps - Flexes your arm at the elbow.
42Function and Movement of Major Muscles Triceps – Extends your arm at the elbow joint.
43Function and Movement of Major Muscles Abdominals - Flex the spine so you can bend forward.
44Function and Movement of Major Muscles Pectorals - Raises your arm at the shoulder. Draws it across your chest.
45Function and Movement of Major Muscles Latissimus Dorsi (lats) - Pulls your arm down at the shoulder. Draws it behindyour back.
46Function and Movement of Major Muscles Trapezius - Holds and rotates your shoulders. Moves your head back andsideways.
47Function and Movement of Major Muscles Quadriceps - Straighten the leg at the knee. Keep it straight when you stand.
48Function and Movement of Major Muscles Hamstrings – Flex your leg at the knee.
49Function and Movement of Major Muscles Gluteals - Extension at the hip.
50Function and Movement of Major Muscles Gastrocnemius – Plantarflexion of the ankle joint (standing on your tiptoes).
51Quiz 29/7 8. Bending or ↓ the angle of a joint it known as 9. Moving a limb away from the bodies midline is known as10. Which OBHS blues were awarded today?
52Homework out Quiz 4/88. Straightening or ↑ the angle of a joint it known as9. Moving a limb towards the bodies midline is known as10. Moving a limb away from the bodies midline is known as?
53Today 4/8 Recap the Muscular System Create your own labelled diagram of the muscular systemDescribe movement of sporting examples using correct anatomical languageIdentify and describe parts of and how the Cardio-respiratory System worksLabel cardio-respiratory systemComplete paragraph describing cardio-respiratory
54Homework Out Quiz 5/8 Match the term with its definition Term 1. Agonist (Prime Mover)A. The muscle that contracts, creating the movement2. ExtensionB. The muscle that relaxes during a movement3. AbductionC. Straightening a joint4. FlexionD. Bending a joint5. AntagonistE. Moving a limb away from the midline of the body6. AdductionF. Moving a limb towards the midline of the body
56Quiz 10/8 Elbow Joint Movement:___1____ Agonist: ____2____ Antagonist: ___3___Hip JointMovement:____4___Agonist: _____5___Antagonist: ___6___Ankle JointMovement:___7____Agonist: ____8____Antagonist: __9____10. What is the sporting event that takes place during week 7?
58Cardio-respiratory System The heart and lungs are responsible for moving oxygen around the body. The ________ system inhales oxygen into the _____ where it is _______ into the blood. The ______ system pumps ____ filled blood around the body where it provides the ______ with the ____ it needs to perform work. The cardio respiratory system ______ more oxygen into the body as a resppnse to _____. It does this by _____ both its ______ and ______ rate to deliver an increased quality of oxygen to _____ muscles.