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OBHS Physical Education OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY – The Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "OBHS Physical Education OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY – The Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 OBHS Physical Education OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY – The Skeletal System

2 5 Major Functions There are five major functions of the skeleton: Remember : Should Mothers Protect Babies Skins 1. Shape and support 2. Movement 3. Protection 4. Blood Production 5. Storage

3 Shape and Support - This is our body's framework. It provides shape for our body, holds our vital organs in place and allows us to have a good posture. Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones in a way which allows movement. Protection - Protects our delicate organs e.g.-SKULL protects the BRAIN. RIB CAGE protects the HEART and LUNGS etc. Blood Production - Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow found in many bones. RED CELLS carry oxygen to the muscles to enable them to work. They are red in colour because they carry haemoglobin. WHITE CELLS fight infection in the body. Storage- minerals like calcium are stored in the bones to add strength

4 Main Bones 1. Cranium 2. Scapula 3. Clavicle 4. Humerus 5. Pelvis 6. Sternum 7. Ribs 8. Vertebrae 9. Radius 10. Ulna 11. Carpals & Metacarpals 12. Phalanges 13. Femur 14. Patella 15. Tibia 16. Fibula 17. Tarsals & Metatarsals 18. Phalanges

5 Don’t be confused… The Foot Metatarsals - foot Tarsals - ankle – think “T” for “toes” The Hand Carpals - wrist bones Metacarpals – hand The Chest Clavicle – collar bone Scapula – shoulder blade The Leg Fibula - small lower Tibia - large lower Patella - knee The Arm Radius - thumb side lower Ulna - finger side lower Humerus - upper arm – “funny bone”

6 Joints Where bones meet they form JOINTS. The movement of the skeleton is helped by joints. There are THREE kinds of joints: Fibrous (non-moving e.g.- skull) Fibrous (non-moving e.g.- skull) Cartilagenous (limited movement e.g.- vertebrae of spine) Cartilagenous (limited movement e.g.- vertebrae of spine) Synovial (a range of movements are available) Synovial (a range of movements are available)

7 Connective tissue Joints are moved by muscles and bones. These are attached by LIGAMENTS and TENDONS. LIGAMENTS attach bone to bone. TENDONS attach muscle to bone. e.g.- The knee joint. Movements other than flexion/extension can cause serious ligament damage in hinge joints like the knee. In contact sports like rugby these ligaments are often strained by forces acting in other directions.

8 Synovial Joints Most moving joints are SYNOVIAL JOINTS. They are very complex structures. The Bones are linked together by ligaments and allow a wide range of movements. The knee is an example of a synovial joint Features of a synovial joint include: Synovial fluid Synovial fluid – Lubricates the joint Synovial Membrane Synovial Membrane – Seals the joint Synovial Capsule Synovial Capsule - Surround the joint to prevent leakage

9 Joints Cont’d Joints can be separated into FOUR categories: Ball and Socket joint Hinge joint Gliding joint Pivot joint

10 Quiz 9/5 What bones make up the following parts of the body The Arm The Leg The Hand What sort of joint is the shoulder ?

11 1. Ball and Socket Definition: A ball-shaped bone end fits into a socket or cup- shaped bone. Examples: 1. Hip 2. Shoulder Movements: A multiaxial joint allowing movement in many directions around the joint. movement in many directions around the joint. The movements possible are: 1.Back and forth(extension/flexion) 2. Side to side(abduction/adduction) 3. Rotation 4. Circumduction

12 2. Hinge Definition: Two bones join in such a way that movement is possible only in one direction, usually at right angles to the bones. Examples: 1. Elbow 2. Knee 3. Ankle Movements: A uniaxial joint allowing movement in only one direction The only movement possible is: Back and forth(extension/flexion)

13 3. Gliding Definition: The bone surfaces are small and flat, or slightly concave and one bones slides over the other. Examples: 1. Carpals and tarsals 2. Ribs and vertebrae 3. Scapula and ribs Movements: Only slight movement is possible due to the restrictions of attached ligaments. Movements possible are: 1. side to side(abduction / adduction) 2. Back and forth(extension/flexion)

14 4. Pivot Definition: A joint constructed in such a way that rotation only is possible (usually about the long axis of the bone) Examples: 1. Atlas and axis of neck 2. Radius and humerous Movements: A uniaxial joint allowing movement in only one direction The only movement possible is: Rotation

15 Quiz – Anatomy 12/5 What sort of joints are the following 9. Shoulder 10. Elbow 11. Knee 12. Ribs and vertebrae

16 Today 12/5 1.Learn the language used to describe movement in the human body

17 Types of Movement There are many types of movement that the skeleton and muscles can produce. The following are the most common: Flexion Flexion Extension Extension Rotation Rotation Abduction Abduction Adduction Adduction Dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion Plantarflexion

18 3.7. Movements at Synovial Joints Just as we learnt a set of terms to describe the positioning of bones, muscles and organs in the body, so we have a set of terms to describe how joints move. TermDefinitionExamples Flexion Bending or decreasing the angle between two bones

19 TermDefinitionExamples Extension Straightening or increasing the angle between two bones

20 TermDefinitionExamples Abduction Moving a limb or part of a limb away from the midline of the body Moving outwards on a star jump Adduction Moving a limb or part of a limb towards the midline of the body Bringing the limbs back together in a star jump Circumduction A combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. The movement of the limb resembles the shape of a cone The arm stroke in Butterfly

21 TermDefinitionExamples Rotation Twisting of a limb about its long axis Turning the head Twisting the trunk Supination Movement of the hand into a palm-up position Holding a bowl of soup Turning a card over Turning a page in a book Pronation Movement of the hand into a palm- down position tipping the soup out Turning a card face down Closing a book

22 TermDefinitionExamples Inversion Movement of the sole of the foot inward Eversion Movement of the sole of the foot outward Dorsi flexion Movement of the top of the foot upward, closer to the shin Plantar flexion Movement of the sole of the foot downward

23 Recapping Movements

24 Types of Movement cont’d FLEXION – Bending the joint. E.g. Bending the knee or elbow. BALL and SOCKET and HINGE are the main joint types that can produce this movement.

25 Types of Movement cont’d EXTENSION of a joint is where the joint is straightened. BALL and SOCKET and HINGE joints are common examples of joints that can produce this movement. Straightening the leg when striking a ball is an example of EXTENSION at the knee (HINGE JOINT)

26 Types of Movement cont’d The ROTATION movement can occur at a BALL and SOCKET and a PIVOT joint. e.g. turning the head or the movement at the shoulder when swimming backstroke.

27 Types of Movement cont’d ABDUCTION and ADDUCTION movements can be produced by BALL and SOCKET joints. ABDUCTION is where a limb moves away from the centre of the body. ADDUCTION is where the limb is moved TOWARDS the centre of the body.

28 Joints and Performance Injuries to joints can occur from: Over use (Too much training) Incorrect movement injuries (e.g.-wrong techniques) Impact or twisting (e.g.-twist of knee or elbow from a tackle or collision) Such injuries should be iced immediately, given plenty rest, elevated and compressed to aid recovery and avoid permanent damage. sports injuries clip

29 Muscle Recap – Name the muscle

30 Types of Muscle In the Human Body there are 3 different types of muscle. These are: SMOOTH – Also known as INVOLUNTARY muscles. Found in the internal organs such as the intestine. They are named as such because we do not have conscious control over them. CARDIAC – Found only in the heart. We cannot control it and it is constantly working. It enables blood to be pumped from the heart to the body. SKELETAL – Often called VOLUNTARY or STRIPED muscle. It enables us to move and is under our conscious control.

31 Muscles for Endurance and Power Muscles are made up of lots of individual fibres. In skeletal muscle, these fibres are either FAST TWITCH or SLOW TWITCH. Both have their different roles … Fast twitch for power, slow twitch for endurance. Fast twitch fibres   contract very quickly and powerfully,   get tired fast   useful for explosive, short duration activities   Eg sprinting and weightlifting. Slow twitch fibres   contract more slowly and with less force   don't get tired as quickly   useful for endurance activities   Eg Swimming and running

32 Muscles for Endurance and Power Slow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but they don't get tired as quickly. They are useful for endurance activities. Everyone has a similar number of muscle fibres, but it is the proportion of fast twitch to slow twitch fibres that differs. You cannot change the amount of slow or fast twitch muscle fibres that you have, but you can train them to work more effectively.

33 The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles Skeletal muscle responds to training and exercise (or lack of it) in two ways. Regular training and exercise can create greater muscle development (HYPERTROPHY). Too much inactivity causes muscle wastage (ATROPHY)

34 The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles When we exercise our bodies regularly and with heavy workloads (normally ANAEROBIC), muscle fibre size increases until the muscle has become large and strong enough to do the tasks required of them. Carrying heavy, bulked muscle does not help endurance athletes so the muscles adapt to using the energy efficiently, and normally will only grow to the maximum size that they need to be.

35 How the Muscles Move To make a joint move in two directions, you need two muscles that work in opposite directions. ANTAGONISTIC muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other. One muscle contracts. This is called the AGONIST or PRIME MOVER. The other one relaxes. This is called the ANTAGONIST Remember what ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS Do!!!!!

36 TermDefinition 1. Agonist (Prime Mover) A. Movement of the sole of the foot downward 2. Extension B. The muscle that relaxes during a movement 3. Abduction C. Straightening a joint 4. Flexion D. Bending a joint 5. Antagonist E. Movement of sole of foot towards the shine 6. Adduction F. Moving a limb towards the midline of the body 7. Plantar Flexion G. The muscle that contracts, creating the movement 8. Dorsi Flexion H. Moving a limb away from the midline of the body

37 Today 1.Recap the Muscular System Create your own labelled diagram of the muscular systemCreate your own labelled diagram of the muscular system 2.Describe movement of sporting examples using correct anatomical language 3.Go over Homework sheet 4.Anatomy and movement bingo

38 The Muscular System TrapeziusLatissimus Dorsi DeltoidsErector Spinae BicepsGluteus Maximus TricepsHamstrings Pectoralis MajorGastrocnemius Abdominals Hip Flexors Quadriceps Tibialis Anterior

39 Muscles and Movement  Movement  Agonist  Antagonist

40 Function and Movement of Major Muscles – Deltoid – Flexes, Extends and Abducts your arm at the shoulder.

41 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Biceps - Flexes your arm at the elbow.

42 Function and Movement of Major Muscles – Triceps – Extends your arm at the elbow joint.

43 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Abdominals - Flex the spine so you can bend forward.

44 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Pectorals - Raises your arm at the shoulder. Draws it across your chest.

45 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Latissimus Dorsi (lats) - Pulls your arm down at the shoulder. Draws it behind your back.

46 Function and Movement of Major Muscles Trapezius - Holds and rotates your shoulders. Moves your head back and sideways.

47 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Quadriceps - Straighten the leg at the knee. Keep it straight when you stand.

48 Function and Movement of Major Muscles – Hamstrings – Flex your leg at the knee.

49 Function and Movement of Major Muscles - Gluteals - Extension at the hip.

50 Function and Movement of Major Muscles – Gastrocnemius – Plantarflexion of the ankle joint (standing on your tiptoes).

51 Quiz 29/7 8. Bending or ↓ the angle of a joint it known as 9. Moving a limb away from the bodies midline is known as 10. Which OBHS blues were awarded today?

52 Homework out Quiz 4/8 8. Straightening or ↑ the angle of a joint it known as 9. Moving a limb towards the bodies midline is known as 10. Moving a limb away from the bodies midline is known as?

53 Today 4/8 1.Recap the Muscular System Create your own labelled diagram of the muscular systemCreate your own labelled diagram of the muscular system 2.Describe movement of sporting examples using correct anatomical language 3.Identify and describe parts of and how the Cardio-respiratory System works Label cardio-respiratory system Label cardio-respiratory system Complete paragraph describing cardio- respiratory Complete paragraph describing cardio- respiratory

54 Homework Out Quiz 5/8 Match the term with its definition TermDefinition 1. Agonist (Prime Mover) A. The muscle that contracts, creating the movement 2. Extension B. The muscle that relaxes during a movement 3. Abduction C. Straightening a joint 4. Flexion D. Bending a joint 5. Antagonist E. Moving a limb away from the midline of the body 6. Adduction F. Moving a limb towards the midline of the body

55 What's Happening ???

56 Quiz 10/8 Ankle Joint Movement:___7____ Agonist: ____8____ Antagonist: __9____ Hip Joint Movement:____4___ Agonist: _____5___ Antagonist: ___6___ Elbow Joint Movement:___1____ Agonist: ____2____ Antagonist: ___3___ 10. What is the sporting event that takes place during week 7?

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58 Cardio-respiratory System The heart and lungs are responsible for moving oxygen around the body. The ________ system inhales oxygen into the _____ where it is _______ into the blood. The ______ system pumps ____ filled blood around the body where it provides the ______ with the ____ it needs to perform work. The cardio respiratory system ______ more oxygen into the body as a resppnse to _____. It does this by _____ both its ______ and ______ rate to deliver an increased quality of oxygen to _____ muscles.

59 Factors affecting the Heart and Lungs

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