Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Physical Education Theory
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Physical Education Factors Affecting Participation and Performance Unit 1b: Muscles
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 3 Types of Muscle In the Human Body there are 3 different types of muscle. These are: Involuntary Muscles – Also known as smooth muscles. These are found in the internal organs such as the intestine. The are named as such because we do not have conscious control over them. Cardiac Muscles – These are only found in the heart, we cannot control it either and it is constantly working. It enables blood to be pumped from the heart to the body. Voluntary Muscles – Can be called skeletal muscles or striped muscle. It enables use to move and is under our control.
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 The Major Muscle Groups
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Function and Movement of Major Muscles Deltoid - Raises your arm sideways at the shoulder. Biceps - Bends your arm at the elbow. Triceps - Straightens your arm at the elbow joint. Abdominals - Pull in the abdomen. Flex the spine so you can bend forward. Pectorals - Raises your arm at the shoulder. Draws it across your chest. Latissimus Dorsi (lats) - Pulls your arm down at the shoulder. Draws it behind your back. Trapezius - Holds and rotates your shoulders. Moves your head back and sideways. Quadriceps - Straighten the leg at the knee. Keep it straight when you stand. Hamstrings - Bend your leg at the knee. Gluteals - Pull your leg back at the hip. Raise it sideways at the hip. Gastrocnemius - Straightens the ankle joint so you can stand on your tiptoes.
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 How the Muscles Move Muscles are attached to two different bones by tendons. When the muscle contracts only one bone moves. The place where the muscle is attached to the stationary bone is called the ORIGIN. The place where the muscle is attached to the moving bone is called the INSERTION. ORIGIN INSERTION
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 How the Muscles Move Muscles can only pull. To make a joint move in two direction, you need two muscles that can pull in opposite directions. Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other. One muscle contracts (agonist, or prime mover) while the other one relaxes (antagonist) and vice versa. The origin is where the muscle joins the fixed bone. The insertion is where it joins the moving bone. On contraction, the insertion moves towards the origin. Remember what ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS Do!!!!!
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Muscles for Endurance and Power Muscles are made up of fibres. All individual voluntary muscle fibres are either fast twitch or slow twitch and these are good for different things. Fast Twitch for Power, Slow Twitch for Endurance Fast twitch fibres contract very quickly and very powerfully, but they get tired quickly as they run out of oxygen in under 10 seconds. They are useful for sprinting and weightlifting or other activities requiring aerobic exercise. Slow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but they don't get tired as quickly and can replace some of the oxygen that is used. They are useful for jogging and endurance activities. Everyone has a similar number of muscle fibres, but the proportion of fast twitch and slow twitch fibres that people have differ. You cannot change the amount of slow or fast twitch muscle fibres that you have. Does this mean sprinters are born or trained?
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles Skeletal muscle responds to training and exercise (or lack of it) in two ways. Regular training and exercise can create greater muscle development (HYPERTROPHY). Too much inactivity causes muscle wastage (ATROPHY)
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 The Effect of Exercise and Training on Muscles When we exercise our bodies regularly and correctly with heavy workloads (Normally short, heavy and anaerobic) new muscle fibres are generated until the muscle has become large and strong enough to do the tasks required of them. Carrying heavy, bulked muscle does not help endurance athletes so the muscles adapt to using the energy efficiently and normally will only grow to the maximum size that they need to be.
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Questions What are the 3 different types of muscle? What is the difference between the origin and the insertion? Name 3 different activities that would require a high percentage of fast twitch fibres. Name 2 different antagonistic pairs of muscles and the movements they make.
Victory Physical Education Copyright 2005 Extra Activities Sticky Labels of Muscles Complete Handouts Have recap checklist Apply practically