Presentation on theme: "Physical Education Theory. 4 Major Functions The four major functions of the skeleton are: Try to remember: Should Mothers Protect Babies 1. Shape and."— Presentation transcript:
Physical Education Theory
4 Major Functions The four major functions of the skeleton are: Try to remember: Should Mothers Protect Babies 1. Shape and support 2. Movement 3. Protection 4. Blood Production
Shape and Support - This is our body's framework, it provides shape for our body, holds our vital organs in place and allows us to have a good posture. Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones which allow movement. The skeleton has a variety of different joints which allow a wide range or mobility Protection - Protects our delicate organs. SKULL protects the BRAIN. RIB CAGE protects the HEART and LUNGS. The SPINAL COLUMN protects the SPINAL CORD Blood Production - Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow found in bones such as the ribs, humerus and femur. RED CELLS carry oxygen to the muscles to enable them to work. They are red in colour because they carry HAEMOBLOBIN. WHITE CELLS fight infection in the body. Blood is also made up of PLASMA (Largest constituent of blood) and PLATELETS (Helps blood clot).
Skull Scapula Clavicle Humerus Pelvis Sternum Ribs Vertebrae Radius Ulna Carpals and Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals and Metatarsals Phalanges NAME THE BONES
Remember where the bones are The Foot Phalanges - toes Metatarsals - foot Tarsals - ankle The Hand Phalanges - fingers Metacarpals - hand Carpals - wrist bones The Chest Sternum - breast Ribs - named by side and number Clavicle - collar Scapula - shoulder The Leg Fibula - small lower Tibia - large lower Petella - knee Femur - upper Pelvis - the "hip" The Arm Radius - thumb side lower Ulna - finger side lower Humerus - upper
Bone Classification There are over 200 main bones in the body and over 100 joints. There are THREE basic types of bones in the human body. Their size and composition are related to their different jobs. 1) Long Bones (Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Tibia, Fibula) 2) Flat Bones (The Scapula, Sternum, Patella and Skull) 3) Irregular Bones (Vertebrae, Metatarsals and Metacarpals) Fact - The Femur is the longest bone in the body. It is stronger weight for weight than steel and is able to withstand forces of up to two tons per square inch when the body takes part in physical activity
Joints Movement of the skeleton is helped by joints. These are particularly helpful for sporting actions and activities. These can be separated into FOUR categories of joints. Ball and Socket joint Hinge joint Gliding joint Pivot joint
Ball and Socket Two examples of this joint in the human body are the hip and shoulder joints. The rounded head of one bone fits into a cup-shaped socket of another. This joint allows the greatest range of movement. Pelvis Femur
Ball and Socket The Shoulder Joint (Ball and Socket)
Hinge Two examples of this type of joint include those found at the knee and elbow. 1) If you move hand towards and away from you. 2) If you move your leg as if you were about to kick a ball. You will find that the movement of the joint can only occur in one way (direction) just like the hinge of a door!! Humerus Radius Ulna
Gliding In this type of joint, two surfaces which are flat rub against each other. These small bones can move over one another to increase flexibility of the hands for example. They are stopped from moving too far by strong ligaments. Carpals
Pivot This joint is made when one bone twists against another (Ring on a peg). These are found in the spine. They also allow the head to turn, raise and lower. Extremely important for keeping balance and awareness
Types of Movement There are many types of movement that the skeleton and muscles can produce. The following are the most common: Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Adduction
Types of Movement FLEXION – Bending the joint. E.g. Bending the knee of elbow. BALL and SOCKET and HINGE are the main joint types that can produce this movement. Examples of FLEXION are bringing foot back to kick a ball, bending over to touch your toes and bringing arm back to throw a dart. But where and what joint is performing the movement?
Types of Movement EXTENSION of a joint is where the joint is straightened. BALL and SOCKET and hinge are the main joint types that can produce this movement. Straightening the leg when running or striking a ball are examples of EXTENSION and the knee (HINGE JOINT)
Types of Movement The ROTATION movement can occur at a BALL and SOCKET and a PIVOT joint. e.g. turning the head or the movement at the shoulder when swimming backcrawl. Why can a rotation movement not occur at the knee?
Types of Movement ABDUCTION and ADDUCTION movements can be produced by BALL and SOCKET joints. ABDUCTION is where a limb moves away from the centre of the body. ADDUCTION is where the limb is moved TOWARDS the centre of the body. A Karate Kick is a good example of ADDUCTION and ABDUCTION
Physical Education Factors Affecting Participation and Performance Muscles and their function
3 Types of Muscle In the Human Body there are 3 different types of muscle. These are: Involuntary Muscles – Also known as smooth muscles. These are found in the internal organs such as the intestine. The are named as such because we do not have conscious control over them. Cardiac Muscles – These are only found in the heart, we cannot control it either and it is constantly working. It enables blood to be pumped from the heart to the body. Voluntary Muscles – Can be called skeletal muscles or striped muscle. It enables use to move and is under our control.
The Major Muscle Groups
Function and Movement of Major Muscles Deltoid - Raises your arm sideways at the shoulder. Biceps - Bends your arm at the elbow. Triceps - Straightens your arm at the elbow joint. Abdominals - Pull in the abdomen. Flex the spine so you can bend forward. Pectorals - Raises your arm at the shoulder. Draws it across your chest. Latissimus Dorsi (lats) - Pulls your arm down at the shoulder. Draws it behind your back. Trapezius - Holds and rotates your shoulders. Moves your head back and sideways. Quadriceps - Straighten the leg at the knee. Keep it straight when you stand. Hamstrings - Bend your leg at the knee. Gluteals - Pull your leg back at the hip. Raise it sideways at the hip. Gastrocnemius - Straightens the ankle joint so you can stand on your tiptoes.
How the Muscles Move Muscles are attached to two different bones by tendons. When the muscle contracts only one bone moves. The place where the muscle is attached to the stationary bone is called the ORIGIN. The place where the muscle is attached to the moving bone is called the INSERTION. ORIGIN INSERTION
How the Muscles Move Muscles can only pull. To make a joint move in two direction, you need two muscles that can pull in opposite directions. Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other. One muscle contracts (agonist, or prime mover) while the other one relaxes (antagonist) and vice versa. The origin is where the muscle joins the fixed bone. The insertion is where it joins the moving bone. On contraction, the insertion moves towards the origin. Remember what ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS Do!!!!!
Muscles for Endurance and Power Muscles are made up of fibres. All individual voluntary muscle fibres are either fast twitch or slow twitch and these are good for different things. Fast Twitch for Power, Slow Twitch for Endurance Fast twitch fibres contract very quickly and very powerfully, but they get tired quickly as they run out of oxygen in under 10 seconds. They are useful for sprinting and weightlifting or other activities requiring aerobic exercise. Slow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but they don't get tired as quickly and can replace some of the oxygen that is used. They are useful for jogging and endurance activities. Everyone has a similar number of muscle fibres, but the proportion of fast twitch and slow twitch fibres that people have differ. You cannot change the amount of slow or fast twitch muscle fibres that you have. Does this mean sprinters are born or trained?