Presentation on theme: "Introduction to 1.2 Totally Ultimate 1.2 Totally Ultimate Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function in a physical activity (Ultimate) Students."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to 1.2 Totally Ultimate
1.2 Totally Ultimate Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function in a physical activity (Ultimate) Students will participate in a ultimate Frisbee tournament and analyse anatomical and physiological concepts in relation to this 5 Credits
Lesson Structure Anatomy Body structure Skeletal System Joints Joint Movement Muscular System Muscle Movement
Lesson Structure Physiology Energy Systems Exercise Systems Short Term/Long term effects Body Types
Skeletal System Foundation on which the body is structured Used to support and protect internal organs as well as allowing movement to occur.
Muscular System Made up of muscles, which provide force for movement Pulls bones around a joint, either closer together or further apart, allowing movement to occur
Respiratory System Takes oxygen from the environment to the lungs Removes carbon dioxide from the lungs to the environment
Cardiovascular System Pumps blood around the body, where it is used by the muscles and organs Transfers oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the lungs and blood
The Skeletal System
Skeletal System o Made up of 206 Bones and joints o Act as a hard framework that gives shape and structure to the body o Protects fragile organs such as brain and heart by surrounding with strong bone o Provide muscles with places to attach to each bone o Creates movement as a muscle that is attached to 2 bones at either end is activated, it can then pull the bones together.
o 3 different types of muscles in the body, skeletal, smooth & cardiac o Main type of muscle is skeletal muscle. These attach to the bones and act over joints. As contraction occurs they shorten and pull the bones together to produce movement o Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. Muscles can enlarge or reduce in size depending on the amount of exercise or activity people do.
Deltoid Tricep Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Maximus Hamstring Gastrocnemius Soleus
Joints of the Body Joints are the connection point between each bone in the body. Where two bones meet is known as a joint Ball and Socket Hinge Joint Pivot Joint
Ball-and-Socket Joints Made up of round end (ball) and a depression on the other bone (socket) – head of humerus into cavity of scapula – head of femur into cavity of hip bone Movement in all directions
Hinge Joints Similar to hinge on a door. Restricted movement between 2 bones, only forward and backwards – ulna and humerus at elbow joint – femur and tibia at knee joint – finger and toe joints
Pivot Joints Allows fixed movement between the two bones. Movement occurs in rotary direction both forwards and backwards E.g Neck
Flexion Decreasing the angle around a joint, between two body parts Flexion Leg Reducing the angle between the gastrocnemius and the hamstrings. Bringing foot towards the bum. Flexion Arm Reducing the angle between the Bicep and the Brachioradialis. Bringing forearm towards the bicep.
Extension Increasing the angle around a joint, between two body parts Extension Leg Increasing the angle between the gastrocnemius and the hamstrings. Bringing foot away from the bum. Extension Arm Increasing the angle between the Tricep and the Brachioradialis. Bringing forearm away from the bicep.
Abduction Taking a limb away from the midline of the body Abduction Leg Taking the leg out and away from the bodys core. Abduction Arm Taking the arm out and away from the bodys core.
Adduction Bringing a limb back towards the midline of the body Adduction Leg Bringing the leg back towards the bodys core. Adduction Arm Bringing the arm back towards the bodys core.
Plantar & Dorsi Flexion Plantar Flexion Foot Pointing the toes down so that the angle between the tibialis anterior and the metatarsals increases. Dorsi Flexion Foot Pointing the toes up so that the angle between the tibialis anterior and the metatarsals decreases.
Rotation & Circumduction Rotation (forearm) the act of rotating, so the circular movement of the forearm Circumduction (arm/shoulder) Circular motion involving all movements. Distal end moves in a circular motion while the proximal end remains stable
Pronation & Supanation Pronation Rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward e.g spilling your soup Supanation Rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward e.g receiving money
Muscles & Bones Actions Muscles cannot push, they can only pull. For this reason, they work in pairs – one muscle pulls by shortening its length (contraction), while its partner relaxes and lengthens. To return to the original position, the muscles reverse their roles. At the end of a movement the antagonist muscle slightly contracts to slow the movement down.
Muscles & Bone actions Agonist/Prime Mover: – The contracting muscle causing the movement over the joint Antagonist: – The muscle that relaxes to allow movement to occur on the other side of the joint – Note that the antagonist may also be an agonist in another exercise