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Challenges to the New Government

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1 Challenges to the New Government
Launching a New Republic 9.2

2 Securing the NW Territory
Trouble was occurring in the Trans-Appalachian West (the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the MI River) Spain, Great Britain, the U.S. and the Native Americans competed over these lands The 1783 Treaty of Paris was to settle these disputes, but failed to do so The Natives hoped to join together to form an independent Native American Nation America was not going for this and Britain supported the Natives in order to maintain their access to the fur in these territories

3 Battle of Fallen Timbers
Although George Washington wanted to avoid military action, he decided to send troops to the area because he believed securing the NW Territory was crucial to the growth of the U.S. The American Army took a beating from Native American warriors led by Little Turtle in 1790 After a second defeat in 1791, Washington ordered another army west, led by Anthony Wayne At this point, Little Turtle wanted to negotiate, but his allies ignored his advice and replaced Little Turtle with a less able leader

4 Battle of Fallen Timbers
Expecting British help, Native American warriors gathered at British-held Fort Miami On August 20, 1794, approximately 2,000 Natives clashed with Wayne’s troops The fighting site was covered with trees that had been struck down by a storm-The Native Americans were defeated in what became known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers The Natives retreated to Fort Miami

5 Treaty of Greenville The British, not wanting war with the U.S., refused to help the Natives This battle crushed the Natives hope of keeping their land in the NW Territory 12 tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 Natives agreed to surrender much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. government

6 The Whiskey Rebellion Not long after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, George Washington had to send out another army to deal with the grumbles over the government’s tax on whiskey This tax was part of Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan to repay the national debt Farmers were angered from PA to GA

7 The Whiskey Rebellion Because of poor roads, backcountry farmers had trouble transporting their grain to the market Crops such as wheat and rye were easily carried to the market in liquid form (whiskey) Customers actually paid more for whiskey and farmers used whiskey as a form of $ as well

8 The Whiskey Rebellion In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in western PA staged the Whiskey Rebellion against the tax Out of fear of not acting, Washington sent General Henry Lee, along with 13,000 soldiers into western PA to put down the uprising As news of the American army approached, the rebels fled, but not before American troops took 20 prisoners Ultimately, Washington proved that the U.S. government had the power and will to enforce its laws

9 The French Revolution This was a European challenge for George Washington In 1789, a financial crisis led the French people to rebel against their government Inspired by the American Revolution, the French revolutionaries demanded liberty and equality At first Americans supported the French Revolution, but by 1792, the Revolution had become very violent (1,000s were being executed, along with King Louis XVI)

10 The French Revolution Other European monarchs felt threatened and France soon declared war on Britain, Holland and Spain The war between France and Britain put the U.S. in an awkward position since France was America’s ally during the American Revolution The 1778 Treaty of Alliance still bound France and the U.S. together

11 The French Revolution Thomas Jefferson argued to help France because the French Revolution was an attack on liberty everywhere -Versus- Alexander Hamilton who pointed out that Britain was the U.S.’s most important trading partner and British trade was too important to risk

12 The French Revolution In 1793, George Washington decided that the U.S. would remain neutral Congress then passed a law (the Neutrality Proclamation) forbidding the U.S. from helping either side

13 Remaining Neutral Britain made it hard for the U.S. to remain neutral
Late in 1792, the British began seizing the cargoes of American ships carrying goods from the French West Indies George Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to England to discuss the above Jay also hoped to persuade the British to give up their forts on the NW frontier

14 Jay’s Treaty During these talks in 1794, news came of the U.S. victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers Fearing another predicament, the British agreed to leave the Ohio Valley by 1796 In Jay’s Treaty, the British also agreed to pay damages for U.S. vessels they had seized Jay failed, however, to open up the profitable British West Indies trade to Americans Because of this, Jay’s Treaty was unpopular

15 Jay’s Treaty Jay’s Treaty was narrowly approved by Senate due to the fact that Britain refused to agree to free trade in the British West Indies, but also the British rejected Jay’s proposal that the British compensate Americans for slaves abducted during the American Revolution Still the Treaty led to peaceful relations with Britain (until 18 years later)

16 Pinckney’s Treaty Like Jay, Thomas Pinckney helped the U.S. reduce tension in the frontier In 1795, Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain gave Americans the right to travel freely on the MI River The Treaty also gave Americans the right to store goods at the port of New Orleans without paying custom duties and Spain accepted the 31st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida and the southern boundary of the U.S.

17 Using Graphics Challenge Response From Spain From Britain From France
Pinckney’s Treaty Jay’s Treaty Policy of neutrality

18 Main Ideas What military and other actions secured the West for the U.S.? Battle of Fallen Timbers; Treaty of Greenville Why did Washington consider it important to put down the Whiskey Rebellion? To uphold the authority of the federal government How did the French Revolution create problems for the U.S.? The U.S. became caught in the middle between France and Great Britain

19 Critical Thinking Why was neutrality a difficult policy for the U.S. to maintain? Think about Ties with France Ties with Britain Restrictions on trade

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