Presentation on theme: "1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6. 2 Objectives Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from Define Basic Rope."— Presentation transcript:
1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6
2 Objectives Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from Define Basic Rope Terminology Rope Construction Rope use Classifications –Utility –Life Safety
3 Objectives Fire Service use of Ropes Proper methods of inspection, maintenance, and storage of ropes. Identify basic knots used in the fire service. Describe methods of rigging basic equipment to be hoisted.
4 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Natural materials: Manila ( was the most common in FD) Sisal Cotton Hemp Refer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual
5 Manila Rope Made from the fibers that grow in the leafstalk of the abaca plant.
6 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Common Synthetic materials: Nylon Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyester There are various other proprietary materials too Refer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual
7 General Advantages of Synthetic Rope Resist mildew/rot Increased strength Flexibility Resists abrasions Lighter Higher melting point Non-conductive Many float
8 Polyethylene Rope
10 Rope Categories Dynamic: Designed for high stretch without breaking Used in rock climbing where falls are possible Static: Designed with low stretch Rope of choice for most rescue incidents, rappelling and hauling/hoisting equipment
11 Rope Construction Methods and Their Characteristics
12 Laid Rope Fiber > Yarns > Strands Constructed by twisting yarns together to form stands Generally three strands are twisted together to make rope How tightly twisted and type of fiber dictate ropes properties Susceptible to abrasion and physical damage Easy to inspect
13 Examples of Laid Rope
14 Braided Rope Most are made from synthetic rope Made by uniformly intertwining strands together Doesn’t twist like laid ropes Load bearing fibers are exposed to direct abrasion and damage
15 Braid-on-Braid Rope Often confused with kern mantle rope Braided core and braided sheath Sheath has herring-bone pattern Very strong rope Strength divided equally between core/sheath Doesn’t resist abrasion as well as kern mantle Sheath may slide along inner core
16 Kern Mantle “jacketed rope” Braided sheath (mantle) Main load bearing strands in core (kern) Load characteristics dependant on manufacturing method Sheath provides some strength but protects kern from abrasion Dynamic and static
18 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Utility Rope Uses
19 Just to prove it does get done… sometimes
20 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Utility Rope Uses Safe Working Strength – 1/5 of Breaking strength (as determined by manufacturer) Safety factor of 5 – allows “room” for knots, bends, etc… i.e. Breaking Strength 1200 kg means safe working strength of 240 kg
21 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Life Safety Rope Ropes, harnesses and hardware must comply with NFPA 1983. NFPA 1983 categorizes ropes and sets strength requirements.
22 NFPA 1983 “Standard on Fire Service Life Safety Rope & System Components ”
23 NFPA 1983 Defines life safety rope as… “rope dedicated solely for the purpose of supporting people during rescue, fire fighting, or other emergency operations, or during training evolutions”
24 Life Safety Rope The NFPA recognizes a 15:1 safety factor. According to NFPA 1983, a one person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 4500 pounds, a two person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 9000 pounds.
25 Life Safety Rope Safe Working Loads 300lbs = 1 person 300 x 15 = 4500lbs Most 7/16” rope meets or exceeds this criteria. 600lbs = 2 persons 600 x 15 = 9000lbs Most 1/2” rope meets or exceeds this criteria. Strength of rope is dramatically increased as diameter increases ALWAYS use manufacturer’s safe working loads
26 DiameterWeight (lbs/30m) Strength (lbs) Elongation @450lbs@900 lbs 3/8”3.856002%3% (2545 kg) 7/16”5.478002%3% (3545 kg) 1/2”7.010 0002%3% (4545 kg ) 5/8”10.212 7002%3% (5772 kg ) Static Kernmantle Rope Strength ( polyester sheath/nylon core) ( Adapted from CMI Gear Catalogue 37)
29 Inspection Ropes must be inspected and properly maintained. (SOG’s) Life safety rope inspections should be logged. Damaged rope should be removed immediately. Training ropes should be inspected after every use.
30 Rope Inspection Inspect all types of rope after each use Visual and tactilely Use methods appropriate to type of rope WATCH for shards of glass, metal, etc…
31 Laid Rope Visual inspection -Physical damage -Untwist and check internally -Mildew/rot in natural ropes (smell?) Tactile inspection -Lumps -Soft spots
32 Braided Rope Visual inspection –Heat –Nicks –Cuts –Excess or unusual fuzziness Tactile –Permanent mushy spots or other deformities
34 Kernmantle Rope Inspection is difficult to do as damage may be hidden Visual inspection –Irregularities in shape or weave –Foul smells –Discolouration or fuzziness
35 Kernmantle Rope Tactile inspection –Put slight tension on rope –Lumps –Depressions –Soft spots (knots can mimic this) –Carefully inspect sheath to look for potential problems –IF IN DOUBT REMOVE AS LIFE SAFETY ROPE
36 Care & Maintenance Ropes must be properly maintained. Follow manufacturer’s recommendation Natural fibers limited to brushing off. Synthetic materials can be washed. Ropes must be dried prior to use. Ropes can be stored in bags or coiled.
37 Care & Maintenance Store out of direct sunlight, away from heat & chemicals. Avoid dragging / unnecessary kinking. Use rope rollers where abrasion is a factor. Do not use damaged or questionable rope. Do not stand on rope.
38 Care & Maintenance Do not overload or shock load. Carefully handle frozen rope. Avoid oil, grease, tar & water runoff from fires.
39 Cleaning Rope Something for you guys to look up… Will be on quizzes and exams!
40 Rope Storage Bagged Coiled
41 Rope Storage Clean, dry and adequate ventilation NOT with chemical contaminants NOT with gas or in battery compartments
42 Rope Logbook Required under NFPA 1983 Record… –In-service date –Date of use and type of use/load? –Impact loads! –Inspection and maintenance records Kept in waterproof place WITH rope
44 Other Uses?
45 Other Uses?
46 Break Time
49 Playing with Rope… Knot – ties a rope to itself Bend – ties a rope to another Hitch – fastens a rope to an object Bight – turned rope back in the direction it came from Combinations of these are required to form recognized fire service knots.
50 Knots and their affect on rope strength (approximate) Bowline and clove hitch 40% Sheet bend 45% Reef Knot 55% Timber Hitch 30-35%
51 Knots and Hitches QUALITIES OF A GOOD KNOT OR HITCH 1) Easy to tie. 2) Easy to identify. 3) Knot is secure under load. 4) Has a minimal effect on rope strength. 5) Easy to untie quickly. 6) Knot is complete when an overhand (safety) knot is tied to back it up.
52 OFM Sign-offs Required to do the following in 30-40 seconds, leaving 30-40 cm (working end) and finishing with overhand safety: –Clove Hitch –Half Hitch –Bowline –Sheet bend (becket bend) –Figure 8 Family –Overhand Safety knot –Half-hitch
55 Half Hitch Used for back up or safety with clove hitches to secure long objects for hauling.
56 Overhand Safety Knot Used primarily as a back up safety knot.
65 * Coupling ropes of unequal diameter
66 Timber Hitch Good for dragging heavy objects and holds firmly as long as there is a steady pull.
67 Chimney Hitch
68 Sheepshank This knot is used to shorten a rope that is fastened at both ends.
69 Reef Knot Good multi purpose knot. Secure knot, easy to untie. To couple two ropes of equal diameter
71 Rescue Knot
77 Practical Learning Outcomes Describe types of ropes. Describe types of rope construction. Care and maintenance of ropes. Terms used in tying ropes and knots. Tie the knots that are used in the fire service. Use the recognized knots for raising / lowering firefighting equipment.