Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6. 2 Objectives  Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from  Define Basic Rope.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6. 2 Objectives  Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from  Define Basic Rope."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6

2 2 Objectives  Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from  Define Basic Rope Terminology  Rope Construction  Rope use Classifications –Utility –Life Safety

3 3 Objectives  Fire Service use of Ropes  Proper methods of inspection, maintenance, and storage of ropes.  Identify basic knots used in the fire service.  Describe methods of rigging basic equipment to be hoisted.

4 4 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Natural materials:  Manila ( was the most common in FD)  Sisal  Cotton  Hemp Refer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual

5 5 Manila Rope Made from the fibers that grow in the leafstalk of the abaca plant.

6 6 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Common Synthetic materials:  Nylon  Polypropylene  Polyethylene  Polyester  There are various other proprietary materials too Refer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual

7 7 General Advantages of Synthetic Rope  Resist mildew/rot  Increased strength  Flexibility  Resists abrasions  Lighter  Higher melting point  Non-conductive  Many float

8 8 Polyethylene Rope

9 9

10 10 Rope Categories Dynamic:  Designed for high stretch without breaking  Used in rock climbing where falls are possible Static:  Designed with low stretch  Rope of choice for most rescue incidents, rappelling and hauling/hoisting equipment

11 11 Rope Construction Methods and Their Characteristics

12 12 Laid Rope  Fiber > Yarns > Strands  Constructed by twisting yarns together to form stands  Generally three strands are twisted together to make rope  How tightly twisted and type of fiber dictate ropes properties  Susceptible to abrasion and physical damage  Easy to inspect

13 13 Examples of Laid Rope

14 14 Braided Rope  Most are made from synthetic rope  Made by uniformly intertwining strands together  Doesn’t twist like laid ropes  Load bearing fibers are exposed to direct abrasion and damage

15 15 Braid-on-Braid Rope  Often confused with kern mantle rope  Braided core and braided sheath  Sheath has herring-bone pattern  Very strong rope  Strength divided equally between core/sheath  Doesn’t resist abrasion as well as kern mantle  Sheath may slide along inner core

16 16 Kern Mantle  “jacketed rope”  Braided sheath (mantle)  Main load bearing strands in core (kern)  Load characteristics dependant on manufacturing method  Sheath provides some strength but protects kern from abrasion  Dynamic and static

17 17

18 18 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Utility Rope Uses

19 19 Just to prove it does get done… sometimes

20 20 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Utility Rope Uses  Safe Working Strength – 1/5 of Breaking strength (as determined by manufacturer)  Safety factor of 5 – allows “room” for knots, bends, etc…  i.e. Breaking Strength 1200 kg means safe working strength of 240 kg

21 21 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Life Safety Rope  Ropes, harnesses and hardware must comply with NFPA 1983.  NFPA 1983 categorizes ropes and sets strength requirements.

22 22 NFPA 1983 “Standard on Fire Service Life Safety Rope & System Components ”

23 23 NFPA 1983  Defines life safety rope as… “rope dedicated solely for the purpose of supporting people during rescue, fire fighting, or other emergency operations, or during training evolutions”

24 24 Life Safety Rope  The NFPA recognizes a 15:1 safety factor.  According to NFPA 1983, a one person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 4500 pounds, a two person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 9000 pounds.

25 25 Life Safety Rope Safe Working Loads  300lbs = 1 person  300 x 15 = 4500lbs  Most 7/16” rope meets or exceeds this criteria.  600lbs = 2 persons  600 x 15 = 9000lbs  Most 1/2” rope meets or exceeds this criteria. Strength of rope is dramatically increased as diameter increases ALWAYS use manufacturer’s safe working loads

26 26 DiameterWeight (lbs/30m) Strength (lbs) Elongation @450lbs@900 lbs 3/8”3.856002%3% (2545 kg) 7/16”5.478002%3% (3545 kg) 1/2”7.010 0002%3% (4545 kg ) 5/8”10.212 7002%3% (5772 kg ) Static Kernmantle Rope Strength ( polyester sheath/nylon core) ( Adapted from CMI Gear Catalogue 37)

27 27

28 28

29 29 Inspection  Ropes must be inspected and properly maintained. (SOG’s)  Life safety rope inspections should be logged.  Damaged rope should be removed immediately.  Training ropes should be inspected after every use.

30 30 Rope Inspection  Inspect all types of rope after each use  Visual and tactilely  Use methods appropriate to type of rope  WATCH for shards of glass, metal, etc…

31 31 Laid Rope  Visual inspection -Physical damage -Untwist and check internally -Mildew/rot in natural ropes (smell?)  Tactile inspection -Lumps -Soft spots

32 32 Braided Rope  Visual inspection –Heat –Nicks –Cuts –Excess or unusual fuzziness  Tactile –Permanent mushy spots or other deformities

33 33 Braid-on-Braid Rope  Visual inspection –Heat –Nicks –Cuts –Sheath sliding? (how to correct?)  Tactile inspection –Lumps (internal damage?) –Reduced diametre (core broken?)

34 34 Kernmantle Rope  Inspection is difficult to do as damage may be hidden  Visual inspection –Irregularities in shape or weave –Foul smells –Discolouration or fuzziness

35 35 Kernmantle Rope  Tactile inspection –Put slight tension on rope –Lumps –Depressions –Soft spots (knots can mimic this) –Carefully inspect sheath to look for potential problems –IF IN DOUBT REMOVE AS LIFE SAFETY ROPE

36 36 Care & Maintenance  Ropes must be properly maintained.  Follow manufacturer’s recommendation  Natural fibers limited to brushing off.  Synthetic materials can be washed.  Ropes must be dried prior to use.  Ropes can be stored in bags or coiled.

37 37 Care & Maintenance  Store out of direct sunlight, away from heat & chemicals.  Avoid dragging / unnecessary kinking.  Use rope rollers where abrasion is a factor.  Do not use damaged or questionable rope.  Do not stand on rope.

38 38 Care & Maintenance  Do not overload or shock load.  Carefully handle frozen rope.  Avoid oil, grease, tar & water runoff from fires.

39 39 Cleaning Rope  Something for you guys to look up…  Will be on quizzes and exams!

40 40 Rope Storage  Bagged  Coiled

41 41 Rope Storage  Clean, dry and adequate ventilation  NOT with chemical contaminants  NOT with gas or in battery compartments

42 42 Rope Logbook  Required under NFPA 1983  Record… –In-service date –Date of use and type of use/load? –Impact loads! –Inspection and maintenance records  Kept in waterproof place WITH rope

43 43

44 44 Other Uses?

45 45 Other Uses?

46 46 Break Time

47 47

48 48

49 49 Playing with Rope…  Knot – ties a rope to itself  Bend – ties a rope to another  Hitch – fastens a rope to an object  Bight – turned rope back in the direction it came from Combinations of these are required to form recognized fire service knots.

50 50 Knots and their affect on rope strength (approximate)  Bowline and clove hitch  40%  Sheet bend  45%  Reef Knot  55%  Timber Hitch  30-35%

51 51 Knots and Hitches QUALITIES OF A GOOD KNOT OR HITCH 1) Easy to tie. 2) Easy to identify. 3) Knot is secure under load. 4) Has a minimal effect on rope strength. 5) Easy to untie quickly. 6) Knot is complete when an overhand (safety) knot is tied to back it up.

52 52 OFM Sign-offs  Required to do the following in 30-40 seconds, leaving 30-40 cm (working end) and finishing with overhand safety: –Clove Hitch –Half Hitch –Bowline –Sheet bend (becket bend) –Figure 8 Family –Overhand Safety knot –Half-hitch

53 53 Common Fire Service Knots, Bends and Hitches  Half Hitch*  Overhand Safety*  Bowline *  Running Bowline  Clove Hitch*  Figure 8 Series* * Required for OFM Signoff  Becket / Sheet Bend*  Timber Hitch  Sheepshank  Square / Reef Knot  Chimney Hitch  Rescue Knot

54 54

55 55 Half Hitch  Used for back up or safety with clove hitches to secure long objects for hauling.

56 56 Overhand Safety Knot  Used primarily as a back up safety knot.

57 57

58 58

59 59

60 60

61 61

62 62

63 63

64 64

65 65 * Coupling ropes of unequal diameter

66 66 Timber Hitch  Good for dragging heavy objects and holds firmly as long as there is a steady pull.

67 67 Chimney Hitch

68 68 Sheepshank  This knot is used to shorten a rope that is fastened at both ends.

69 69 Reef Knot  Good multi purpose knot.  Secure knot, easy to untie.  To couple two ropes of equal diameter

70 70

71 71 Rescue Knot

72 72

73 73

74 74

75 75

76 76

77 77 Practical Learning Outcomes Describe types of ropes. Describe types of rope construction. Care and maintenance of ropes. Terms used in tying ropes and knots. Tie the knots that are used in the fire service. Use the recognized knots for raising / lowering firefighting equipment.


Download ppt "1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6. 2 Objectives  Identify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed from  Define Basic Rope."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google