Presentation on theme: "FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6"— Presentation transcript:
1 FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6 Seneca College FIR 005FIRE SERVICE Ropes & Knots IFSTA Ch. 6
2 ObjectivesIdentify the different materials that fire service rope is constructed fromDefine Basic Rope TerminologyRope ConstructionRope use ClassificationsUtilityLife Safety
3 Objectives Fire Service use of Ropes Proper methods of inspection, maintenance, and storage of ropes.Identify basic knots used in the fire service.Describe methods of rigging basic equipment to be hoisted.
4 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Natural materials:Manila ( was the most common in FD)SisalCottonHempRefer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual
5 Made from the fibers that grow in the leafstalk of the abaca plant. Manila RopeMade from the fibers that grow in the leafstalk of the abaca plant.
6 Rope Materials & Their Characteristics Common Synthetic materials:NylonPolypropylenePolyethylenePolyesterThere are various other proprietary materials tooRefer to Table 6.1 page 149 IFSTA Manual
7 General Advantages of Synthetic Rope Resist mildew/rotIncreased strengthFlexibilityResists abrasionsLighterHigher melting pointNon-conductiveMany float
10 Rope Categories Dynamic: Designed for high stretch without breaking Used in rock climbing where falls are possibleStatic:Designed with low stretchRope of choice for most rescue incidents, rappelling and hauling/hoisting equipment
11 Rope Construction Methods and Their Characteristics
12 Laid Rope Fiber > Yarns > Strands Constructed by twisting yarns together to form standsGenerally three strands are twisted together to make ropeHow tightly twisted and type of fiber dictate ropes propertiesSusceptible to abrasion and physical damageEasy to inspect
14 Braided Rope Most are made from synthetic rope Made by uniformly intertwining strands togetherDoesn’t twist like laid ropesLoad bearing fibers are exposed to direct abrasion and damage
15 Braid-on-Braid Rope Often confused with kern mantle rope Braided core and braided sheathSheath has herring-bone patternVery strong ropeStrength divided equally between core/sheathDoesn’t resist abrasion as well as kern mantleSheath may slide along inner core
16 Kern Mantle “jacketed rope” Braided sheath (mantle) Main load bearing strands in core (kern)Load characteristics dependant on manufacturing methodSheath provides some strength but protects kern from abrasionDynamic and static
20 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Utility Rope UsesSafe Working Strength – 1/5 of Breaking strength (as determined by manufacturer)Safety factor of 5 – allows “room” for knots, bends, etc…i.e. Breaking Strength 1200 kg means safe working strength of 240 kg
21 Rope Use Classifications Primary Uses Life Safety RopeRopes, harnesses and hardware must comply with NFPA 1983.NFPA 1983 categorizes ropes and sets strength requirements.
22 Fire Service Life Safety Rope & System Components” NFPA 1983“Standard onFire Service Life Safety Rope & System Components”
23 NFPA 1983 Defines life safety rope as… “rope dedicated solely for the purpose of supporting people during rescue, fire fighting, or other emergency operations, or during training evolutions”
24 Life Safety Rope The NFPA recognizes a 15:1 safety factor. According to NFPA 1983, a one person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 4500 pounds, a two person rope requires a minimum tensile strength of 9000 pounds.
25 Life Safety Rope Safe Working Loads 300lbs = 1 person300 x 15 = 4500lbsMost 7/16” rope meets or exceeds this criteria.600lbs = 2 persons600 x 15 = 9000lbsMost 1/2” rope meets or exceeds this criteria.Strength of rope is dramatically increased as diameter increasesALWAYS use manufacturer’s safe working loads
29 Inspection Ropes must be inspected and properly maintained. (SOG’s) Life safety rope inspections should be logged.Damaged rope should be removed immediately.Training ropes should be inspected after every use.
30 Rope Inspection Inspect all types of rope after each use Visual and tactilelyUse methods appropriate to type of ropeWATCH for shards of glass, metal, etc…
31 Laid Rope Visual inspection Tactile inspection Physical damage Untwist and check internallyMildew/rot in natural ropes (smell?)Tactile inspectionLumpsSoft spots
32 Braided Rope Visual inspection Tactile Heat Nicks Cuts Excess or unusual fuzzinessTactilePermanent mushy spots or other deformities
34 Inspection is difficult to do as damage may be hidden Kernmantle RopeInspection is difficult to do as damage may be hiddenVisual inspectionIrregularities in shape or weaveFoul smellsDiscolouration or fuzziness
35 Kernmantle Rope Tactile inspection Put slight tension on rope Lumps DepressionsSoft spots (knots can mimic this)Carefully inspect sheath to look for potential problemsIF IN DOUBT REMOVE AS LIFE SAFETY ROPE
36 Care & Maintenance Ropes must be properly maintained. Follow manufacturer’s recommendationNatural fibers limited to brushing off.Synthetic materials can be washed.Ropes must be dried prior to use.Ropes can be stored in bags or coiled.
37 Seneca College FIR 005Care & MaintenanceStore out of direct sunlight, away from heat & chemicals.Avoid dragging / unnecessary kinking.Use rope rollers where abrasion is a factor.Do not use damaged or questionable rope.Do not stand on rope.UV will cause degradation, chemicals cause deterioration, avoid abrasion.
38 Care & Maintenance Do not overload or shock load. Seneca College FIR 005Care & MaintenanceDo not overload or shock load.Carefully handle frozen rope.Avoid oil, grease, tar & water runoff from fires.UV will cause degradation, chemicals cause deterioration, avoid abrasion.
39 Cleaning Rope Something for you guys to look up… Will be on quizzes and exams!
49 Playing with Rope… Knot – ties a rope to itself Bend – ties a rope to anotherHitch – fastens a rope to an objectBight – turned rope back in the direction it came fromCombinations of these are required to form recognized fire service knots.
50 Knots and their affect on rope strength (approximate) Bowline and clove hitch 40%Sheet bend 45%Reef Knot 55%Timber Hitch 30-35%
51 Knots and Hitches QUALITIES OF A GOOD KNOT OR HITCH Easy to tie. Seneca College FIR 005Knots and HitchesQUALITIES OF A GOOD KNOT OR HITCHEasy to tie.Easy to identify.Knot is secure under load.Has a minimal effect on rope strength.Easy to untie quickly.Knot is complete when an overhand (safety) knot is tied to back it up.Other ff is anticipating the knot that will be used, recognized knots are easy to untie, even in the dark.
52 OFM Sign-offsRequired to do the following in seconds, leaving cm (working end) and finishing with overhand safety:Clove HitchHalf HitchBowlineSheet bend (becket bend)Figure 8 FamilyOverhand Safety knotHalf-hitch
53 Common Fire Service Knots, Bends and Hitches Half Hitch*Overhand Safety*Bowline *Running BowlineClove Hitch*Figure 8 Series** Required for OFM SignoffBecket / Sheet Bend*Timber HitchSheepshankSquare / Reef KnotChimney HitchRescue Knot
77 Practical Learning Outcomes Describe types of ropes.Describe types of rope construction.Care and maintenance of ropes.Terms used in tying ropes and knots.Tie the knots that are used in the fire service.Use the recognized knots for raising / lowering firefighting equipment.