3 MARLINSPIKEAgain, the reference text for this chapter is CHAPMAN, PILOTING AND SEAMANSHIP, MarlinspikeAUXSEA STUDENT STUDY GUIDE
4 3 BASIC TYPES OF ROPE(LINE) NaturalSyntheticWire
5 NATURAL ROPE(Line)MANILA and COTTONAbout the only two kinds of natural rope(line) left.LINE: Name given to all ropes when put to use aboard a vessel.Two or three strands TWISTED clockwise to form one single strand.
6 NATURAL ROPE(LINE) MANILA Made from plant fibers.Most popularADVANTAGESReadily availableInexpensiveVery durable
7 MANILADISADVANTAGESManila deteriorates if stowed wet, damp or left in the bright sunlight.NOTEManila has been virtually replaced by synthetic lines especially for running rigging
8 COTTON LINE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Pliable Runs smoothly in blocks ½ Strength of ManilaSusceptible to rotStretches, especially when wet
9 WORKING TOOL(S) FID and MARLINSPIKE A FID is the instrument or tool used to work on natural and synthetic lines and is usually made of WOOD, PLASTIC or ALUMINUM, SO AS NOT TO DAMAGE THE LINE while working it.MARLINSPIKE: In appearance, it may look almost like a FID but is made of STEEL for endurance.
11 SYNTHETIC ROPE ADVANTAGES Almost impervious to salt, air, water and anything else that could destroy natural lineTougher and stronger for their size than almost any other line materialLast a long timeDo a better job than any other kind of line
12 SYNTHETIC ROPE DISADVANTAGES It tends to “UNLAY” when cut.Must be whipped or “stopped” immediately.Open flame or Heating iron good for this.
13 4 TYPES OF SYNTHETIC ROPES NYLONDACRONPOLYPROPYLENEPOLYETHYLENE
14 ADVANTAGES OF NYLON HIGHEST ELASTICITY CAN ABSORB 7 TIMES SHOCK LOAD OF MANILAUSED EXTENSIVELY FOR TOWING AND MOORINGHIGH RESISTANCE TO ROTHIGH ABRASIVE RESISTANCE
15 NYLON ADVANTAGES Cont’d Twice as strong as manilaCan use nylon of smaller diameter in replacing manila linesCheaper in the long runExtremely flexibleNo breaking in period
16 NYLON Disadvantage NOTE MAIN DISADVANTAGE When it reaches the end of it’s elongation, it will SNAP, like a rubber band, becoming extremely dangerous to anybody or thing in it’s path.
17 DACRON Has all the properties of Nylon BUT; is NOT as Elastic Fairly light in weightMostly has replaced cotton lines on most vessels
18 POLYETHYLENE ADVANTAGES It floats. DISADVANTAGES Low abrasion resistanceNot nearly as supple as other syntheticsKnots need to be secured
19 POLYPROPYLENE Low abrasion resistance Again not very supple It FLOATS **Stronger when it is wet**
20 WIRE ROPEGenerally confined to use on sailing vessels and larger boats.Many strands of wire are wound over an inner core of either wire or fabric such as cotton or a synthetic fabric.The core provides a source of lubrication(when oiled)(or graphite) to ease the friction of the wires and also provides some elasticity or give.
21 5 GRADES RELATIVE TO STRENGTH WIRE ROPE5 GRADES RELATIVE TO STRENGTHIMPROVED PLOW STEELPLOW STEELMILD PLOW STEELTRACTION STEELIRON
22 WIRE ROPEUsed where GREAT STRENGTH or HEAVY LOADING is needed, such as STANDING RIGGING and CABLE TOWINGExtremely stiffMust use a MARLINSPIKE to work with itDifficult to work with
23 CARING FOR YOUR LINESNeglect can be very expensive. TAKE CARE OF YOUR LINES.DO NOT OVERLOAD: Generally, safe working strength is 1/5 the BREAKING strength.PROTECT AGAINST ABRASION: Always use chaffing gear.AVOID SUDDEN STRAINS ON THE LINE:KEEP YOUR LINES CLEAN: Sand, dirt and grit will grind away the material in a line. Wash them as needed.
24 LINE CARE (Cont’d) 6. STORE YOUR LINES PROPERLY: a. FAKING: YES. When appropriateb. COILING: YES. When appropriatec. FLEMISHING: YES. When appropriated. CHORDING:NO. Bunched up and thrown into a rope locker! Even when you do it wrong, there is a proper name for it! DO NOT CHORD your lines! .
26 LINE CARE Cont’d 7. Match your line to the use 8. Keep all chemicals away9. Avoid excess wear10. Avoid kinks11. Don’t run lines over sharp edges
27 PARTS OF A LINE Working End Standing Part Bitter End Overhand Loop Underhand LoopStandingPartBitter End
28 DIPPING THE EYEUsed where more than one vessel’s mooring line is used on the same pile.DOCKING: Your EYE SPLICE up through the other eye splices – over the top and let settle around the piling.UNDOCKING: lift your eye splice up over the piling then pull through other eye splices from the bottom.YOU’RE ON YOUR WAY.
30 SQUARE (REEF) KNOTMost common way to join two lines of EQUAL DIAMETER together, where no great load is anticipated.The square knot will JAM if heavily loaded, making it almost impossible to break it down without cutting it out.It may also be forced into two half hitches, under great strain.
38 USED TO TIE A LINE TO A RING, TWO HALF HITCHESUSED TO TIE A LINE TO A RING,PILE, POST OR GROMMETEASY TO UNTIEUNDER TENSIONMORE PERMANENT THAN A CLOVE HITCH
39 CLOVE HITCHUsed to TEMPORARILY fasten a line to a piling or other attachment.MUST WATCH IT(so that it does not undo).When under a strain, it will not slip.When under a hard strain, it will set up tight and may be difficult to break down.On the other hand, if left slack, it may work itself loose.
41 TIMBER HITCH Very useful in towing logs or other similar objects. Fast and easy knot to tie and break down.If you use half hitches with this knot, tie them FIRST , then proceed with the timber hitch.
48 SPLICING Preferred method of joining two lines together EYE SPLICE:To make a PERMANENT EYE at the end.LONG SPLICE: Does NOT increase diameter of the line. Good for use with blocks, sheeves.SHORT SPLICE: May increase lin Preferred method of joining two lines together e diameter and is not used to run through a block, etc.
56 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 1The clove hitch is used to tie a line to a pile or bollard when_______a. a permanent fastening is requiredb. when “dipping your line” is requiredc. securing hemp lines onlyd. a temporary fastening is desired
57 REVIEW QUESTIONSThe clove hitch is used to tie a line to a pile or bollard when______d. a temporary fastening is desired
58 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO.2 a. Fisherman’s bend 2. Which knot is most useful to temporarily join the ends of different diameter lines? The _________a. Fisherman’s bendb. Square or Reef knotc. Sheet or Becket Bendd. Sheepshank
59 REVIEW QUESTIONS2. Which knot is most useful to temporarily join the ends of different diameter lines? The___________c. Sheet or Becket bend
60 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 33. The preferred method of joining rope ends permanently is by use of a ___________a. knotb. splicec. marlinspiked. turnbuckle
61 REVIEW QUESTIONS3. The preferred method of joining line ends permanently is by use of a _________________b. splice
62 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 44. Which of the following types of line has the highest elasticity?a. Manilab. Dacronc. Cottond. Nylon
63 REVIEW QUESTIONS4. Which of the following types of line has the highest elasticity?d. Nylon
64 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 55. The most popular and durable of natural fibers used in the manufacture of rope for marine applications is ______a. flaxb. sisalc. cottond. manila hemp
65 REVIEW QUESTIONS5. The most popular and durable of natural fibers used in the manufacture of rope for marine applications is ________d. manila hemp
66 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 66. The bowline is a knot which is relatively easy to tie and is ______a. especially useful for forming a temporary loopin the end of a line.b. difficult to untie and tends to slipc. most useful for reefing sailsd. never used to tie sheets to the clew of the jib sail
67 REVIEW QUESTIONS6. The bowline is a knot which is relatively easy to tie and is ______a. especially useful for forming a loop
68 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 77. Cotton rope has about _____ as much strength as compared to manila?a. ¼b. ½c. ¾d. equal
69 REVIEW QUESTIONS7. Cotton rope has about _____as much strength as compared to manila?b. 1/2
70 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 88. Rope made of the synthetics Polypropylene and Polyethylene_____a. are more supple than Dacron and Nylonb. will floatc. have a higher abrasion resistance thanDacron or Nylond. are stronger when wet than when dry
71 REVIEW QUESTIONS8. Rope made of the synthetics Polypropylene and Polyethylene _____b. will float
72 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 99. When laying down a long line on deck for possible full length use, the line should be ______a. flemishedb. fakedc. coiled or wrappedd. braided
73 REVIEW QUESTIONS9. When laying down a long line on deck for possible full length use, the line should be ________b. Faked
74 REVIEW QUESTIONS NO. 10 10. Where is Nylon sometimes dangerous? a. in the open sunb. in dark, damp storagec. when tightly splicedd. under a heavy towing load
75 REVIEW QUESTIONS 10. Where is Nylon sometimes dangerous ? d. under a heavy load