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Presentation on theme: "ROPE/BASIC KNOTS/BASIC LASHING PRESENTATION - By Matt Hannam"— Presentation transcript:


2 Cleaning and Care of Rope
Safety: The life of a climbing rope depends greatly on use and damage and, to a lesser extent, on care, cleaning, and storage. Cleaning: Climbing ropes should be washed occasionally by hand in cold water with a mild soap, rinsed free of the soap, and then spread out or hung up to dry in the air. Avoid direct sunlight, do not use a dryer, and do not place the rope above a heat source. Care: Keep your rope off the ground to protect it from dirt which contains sharp small chips and crystals. Avoid contact with chemicals, acids, alkalis, bleach, oxidizing agents (present in concrete), and embers, sparks or other sources of ignition, e.g., smokers. Avoid treading on your rope as this may work sharp particles into the core. Use climbing rope only for climbing - not for towing a vehicle. Storage: Climbing rope should be stored, preferably after drying, at room temperature, ideally in a storage bag. Life Expectancy: Manufacturers recommend a retirement schedules which errs on the side of caution and also, presumably, on the side of profit!  How long you decide to use the rope depends on your own inspection, knowledge of the rope's history, and assessment. If a rope has not suffered a major fall, i.e., approaching factor 2 (a fall double the rope distance from the belay); if the sheath shows no significant wear or damage; and if the rope has not been exposed to damage from chemicals: it is almost certainly safe to use it within the schedule shown below. However, repeated minor falls, heat from rapid rappelling, and rappelling using small diameter carabineers all tend to weaken rope. Replacement: Occasional use, e.g., alternate weekends: every 4 years Every Weekend: every 2 years Sport climbing involving frequent short falls: every months Major fall (approaching factor 2): immediately Flat spots, soft spots, becoming stiff, sheath damage: immediately Unsure of condition or history: immediately

3 Definitions • A knot is a rope intertwined within itself, or with another length of rope. • Stopper knots are used to stop the end of a rope fraying, or to stop a rope from running through a small hole, appliance or constriction. • A bend is a knot that joins two ropes together. • Bight - a double section of rope usually taken from the center of the rope, that does not cross over itself. • Loop - a turn of the rope that crosses itself. • Free End - the end that is not rigged, the end one can work with. • Standing End - the end that one cannot work with, it is usually fixed to something or too long to work with. • Jam - when the knot tightens under tension and you cannot get it undone, knots that jam (i.e. overhand knots) should be avoided. • Finishing the knot involves "dressing" it and then "setting" it. Dressing is the orientation of all  knot parts so that they are properly aligned. Failure to do this can result in a great reduction in knot strength or failure of the knot. Setting a knot involves tightening all parts of the knot so that all the parts are touching and causing friction upon other parts of the knot thus rendering it operational. • Slippery - tying a knot with the free end passed back through the knot so that when pulled the knot comes undone.



6 Rope Construction Most rope and cords generally available are either made of nylon, polypropylene, sisal or cotton.  Sisal and cotton are generally used for smaller lines or cords that have commercial or domestic uses (Butcher's Cord or Bailer Twine).  Polypropylene is a very popular rope material as it is inexpensive and it floats – a most useful characteristic for any rope that is to be used around water.  Nylon rope of similar diameter is stronger, but usually more expensive and nylon does not float.  Ropes are usually either of: a three strand twisted construction, a multi-strand braided, or kermantle construction.  Kermantle construction involves a sheath and an inner core.  Kermantle rope of a similar diameter to a twisted rope is usually stronger, stretches more, is more flexible and easier to work with.                                                                                                                         

7 Rope Size  Sisal Cord / Cotton Butchers Cord / Binder Twine - these light anD inexpensive cords are most useful for lashings where many wraps of the cord will carry the load.  1/8" or 3 mm cord / Sash Cord - useful for very light loads, heavy duty lashings, clothesline, or guy lines on small tents and tarps.  3/16" or 5 mm cord - useful for tying on light loads to vehicles, guy lines on heavier tents or large cook area tarps.  1/4" or 7 mm rope - preferred size for tying canoes onto trailers and vehicles, strong enough, but it still allows some stretch to maintain a pressure over a period of time. 3/8" or 9 mm rope - preferred size for throw bags and painters, or anytime one has to occasionally haul on the rope with bare hands, but storage is also a consideration.  ½" or 11 mm rope -  the standard size for "single line" climbing ropes.

8 Knots Weaken Rope They do!  A great deal is written about which knots weaken a rope most. An angle, a kink, or a knot, stresses the fibers unevenly and weakens the rope. If this concerns you, you are using rope that's too thin!! Although some knots in some ropes are claimed to only weaken a rope to about 80% of its rated strength, other knots weaken a rope to about 50%. It is therefore simpler, and certainly safer, to assume that even brand new rope will perform at no more than 50% of its rated breaking strength. And, if the rope is old, worn, or damaged by sunlight or chemicals - expect considerably less.



11 Whipping Rope

12                                                                                                                              Simple Whipping.  All ropes should have their ends treated in some way to stop them from fraying or becoming un-stranded. A whipping will fail if it is not tight and tidy.

13 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3



16 Square Knot                                                               You can loosen the square knot easily by either pushing the ends toward the knot or by "upsetting" the knot by pulling back on one end and pulling the other through the loops.

17 Timber Hitch                                               This is an important hitch, especially for dragging a heavy object like a log. It will hold firmly so long as there is a steady pull; slacking and jerking may loosen it. The timber hitch is also useful in pioneering when two timbers are "sprung" together. When it is used for dragging, a simple hitch should be added near the front end of the object to guide it.

18 (Lumberman's or Countryman's Knot)
The Timber Hitch (Lumberman's or Countryman's Knot)

19 Half Hitch                                      The half hitch is the start of a number of other hitches and is useful all by istelf as a temporary attaching knot.

20 Two Half Hitches                                           This is a reliable and useful knot for attaching a rope to a pole or boat mooring. As it's name suggests, it is two half hitches, one after the other. To finish, push them together and snug them by pulling on the standing part.

21 Clove Hitch                                               This is one of the most widely used knots. Because it passes around an object in only one direction, it puts very little strain on the rope fibers. Tying it over an object that is open at one end is done by dropping one overhand loop over the post and drawing them together. The other method of tying it is used most commonly if the object is closed at both ends or is too high to toss loops over. The latter is used in starting and finishing most lashings.

22 The Clove Hitch

23 Bowline                                                                               The bowline has been called the king of knots. It will never slip or jam if properly made and, thus, is excellent for tying around a person in a rescue. Begin by formatting an overhand loop in the standing part. Then take the free end up through the eye, around the standing part and back where it came from.


25 The Bowline

26 Sheet Bend                                                           The sheet bend is the most important knot for joining two rope ends, especially if the ropes are of different sizes. Sailors named it in the days of sailing ships when they would "bend" (tie) the "sheets"' (ropes in the rigging of a ship).   Begin with a bight in the larger rope. THen weave the end of the smaller rope p thrgh the eye, around the bight, and back under itself. Snug it carefully before applying any strain to the knot.

27 The Sheet Bend

28 Sheepshank                                                                                                        This knot is used to shorten a rope that is fastened at both ends. Take up the slack, then make an underhand loop and slide it over the blight and pull tight. Do the same to the other end to complete the knot. The sheepshank is only a temporary knot as it stands. But it can be made more permanent by adding a second half hitch to each end.

29 The Sheepshank

30 The Double Overhand Stopper Knot

31 Taut-line Hitch                                                                     Since it will only slide one way, the Taut-line hitch is often used on tent ropes. The taut-line hitch will hold firmly on a smooth pole such as a scout stave. Place rope end around pole, make a turn below it, then bring rope up across the standing part around the pole and tuck through.

32 The Rolling Hitch (Taut Line Hitch)













45 TRIPOD LASHING Lay three poles alongside each other with the top of the center pole pointing the direction opposite that of the outside poles. Tie a clove hitch around one outside pole. Loosely wrap the poles five or six times, laying the turns of the rope neatly alongside one another. Make two very loose fraps on either side of the center pole. End with a clove hitch. Spread the legs of the tripod into position. If you have made the wraps or fraps too tight, you may need to start over.




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