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Lamorinda Community Emergency Response Team Rescue Ropes, Anchors and Knots.

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Presentation on theme: "Lamorinda Community Emergency Response Team Rescue Ropes, Anchors and Knots."— Presentation transcript:


2 Lamorinda Community Emergency Response Team Rescue Ropes, Anchors and Knots

3 Semper Salus! Safety is Always the Number One Priority!

4 CERT Disclaimer  This 2 hour presentation will NOT qualify you to perform Technical Rope Rescue!  Do not put a life in jeopardy by exceeding your training.  We are here to present a series of knots, anchors and other material to familiarize you with the proper tools for LOW ANGLE emergency use.  Practice the knots as often as possible on household chores.

5 Rope Rescue Definitions  Low angle rope rescue refers to an environment in which the "on-rope" rescuers are predominately supported by the rescuers themselves (feet on the ground) and not the rope rescue system.  High angle rope rescue refers to an environment in which the "on-rope" rescuers are predominantly supported by the rope rescue system.

6 Safety Factors  Ropes, webbing, carabiners and other hardware have tensile strengths (minimum breaking strength or MBS) rated in pounds or kN. 1 kN = 220 pounds.  Safety Factors are used to limit the chance failure.  NFPA Life Safety – 15:1  NFPA Utility – 7:1  Mountain Climbing – 10:1

7 Strength Loss Caused by Knots


9 Rope Types - Utility  A Utility Rope is one that is used for hauling supplies or securing objects.  A Utility Rope must NEVER be used to support the weight of a person.

10 Rope Types - Utility  Utility Rope materials:

11 Rope Types – Life Safety  A Life Safety Rope is normally a Static Kernmantle nylon rope.  ½ inch, MBS 9,000 lbs.  Safety Factor 15:1  Working strength 600 lbs.  Static kernmantle (low stretch)  Used to support personnel  Parallel fiber core prevents stretch  Dynamic kernmantle (high stretch)  Shock-load absorbing ability  Mountain climbing line  Twisted or Laid core allows stretch  Static ropes are typically manufactured in one color and have a contrasting color as a tracer. Dynamic ropes come in three to four colors.

12 Rope Types – Life Safety  Kernmantle is constructed with  High-strength continuous fiber inner core (kern)  Braided outer sheath (mantle)  Kern is the load bearing element (about 70%) protected by the mantle

13 Webbing  Used for  Tying anchors  Lashing victims into a litter  Tying personal harness  Most common  1 inch, spiral weave, tubular, nylon  MBS 4,000 lbs.

14 Webbing To remember the colors in order: Get Your Boots On

15 Webbing  Flat Webbing  Single layer of fabric  Hard to tie into knots  MBS 3,000 lbs. for 1”  Mainly used for straps and harnesses  Tubular Webbing  2 types:  Spiral Weave (Shuttle Loom)  Edge Stitched (Needle Loom)  Easy to tie into knots  MBS 4,000 lbs. for 1”

16 Rope and Webbing Care  Inspect before and after use  Inspect for-  Visual damage  Loose Mantle  Kinks  Store away from sunlight, heat and chemicals  Wash and air dry

17 Rope Use and Limits  Do not submit Life Safety Rope to shock loads  Do not step on rope, you will grind in dirt  Use edge protection on all ropes crossing sharp edges and on dirt slopes  Keep a written log on all Life Safety Rope  Damaged or worn Life Safety Rope can be decommissioned into Utility Rope with appropriate markings.


19 Anchors  An anchor is used to support the complete weight of the victim and the rescuers with all equipment  An anchor must be “bomb-proof”  Anchors may be natural or manmade  Trees  Rocks – “BFR”, a “very large rock”  Trucks  Buildings

20 Anchors  Select anchors that are in line with the pull of the system  Consider that the direction of the pull may change with the movement of the load  Do not use trailer hitches or tow hooks as anchor points. Use main frames or axles for stable points of attachment.

21 Anchors  Picket systems require more resources and time  Multi-point anchors can distribute shock load better and offer redundancy if a single anchor fails  Redundant anchor points should be as strong as the main anchor point  Back-up anchors must have little slack in case of shock loading

22 Anchors  Angle between the legs should not exceed 90°  Load-distributing anchor systems share the load and provide readjustment if a point fails

23 Anchors  Wrap 3 Pull 2 with webbing  Load is off knot and web is doubled for strength

24 Anchors  Load Sharing with Webbing  Load divided among 3 anchor points

25 Anchors  Tensionless Hitch  Minimum 3 wraps, more if surface is smooth  Anchor at least 8x diameter of rope  Aligns with direction of pull  Same strength as rope because no load on knot

26 Anchors  Picket Anchor System  A single picket driven 2 feet into firm soil has a safe working load of approximately 700 lb.  A combination picket or three pickets in line and lashed together will hold about 1,800 lb.

27 Anchors  Triangle Picket Anchor System


29 Names of rope parts  A rope has many parts, each with a name  To avoid confusion, here are the part names

30 Names of line parts  Bight - a bend in the rope that does not cross back across itself.  Loop - a bend in the rope that DOES cross itself.  Elbow – the crossing of the rope  Standing end – the long end, not the knotted end.  Standing part – the middle of the rope.  Working end – the end where the knot is tied

31 Stoppers  A knot that stops a rope from exiting a pulley  A knot that stops a primary knot from loosening by securing the working end

32 Stoppers  Overhand Knot  Used to back up other knots

33 Stoppers  Double Overhand Stopper Knot  Reliable, moderately large stopper

34 Stoppers  Figure Eight Stopper Knot  Used to stop rope travel through a device  Basis of the Figure Eight family of knots

35 Loops  Non slipping loops  Slipping loops  Attachment points  Anchor knots

36 Loops  Figure Eight Loop  Can be attached to an object with a carabiner  Non slipping loop

37 Loops  Figure Eight Follow Through  Tied around an object  Non slipping loop

38 Loops  Figure Eight on a Bight  Can be attached to an object with a carabiner  Non slipping loop

39 Loops  Forms two individual loops  Creates more bearing surface for the load  More efficient than the normal figure eight loop  Double Loop Figure Eight

40 Loops  Forms loop in the middle of a rope  Takes strain in one direction only  Strain from other direction collapses loop  Directional Figure Eight Loop

41 Loops  Designed to be pulled in any of 3 directions  Can be tied mid-line  No back ups needed  Alpine Butterfly

42 One Side of the Butterfly forms an X or Cross The Other Side has Two Parallel Ropes

43 Loops  Non-slipping loop  MUST be backed up  Lower efficiency than figure 8 family  Bowline

44 Loops  Non-slipping loop  Double loops  Bowline on a Bight

45 Loops  Slipping loop  Used to secure wrists or ankles of victim  Handcuff Loop

46 Hitches  A knot that ties around an object  The object may be the standing end of the rope

47 Hitches  Basic knot  Used in multiples, i.e. 2 half-hitches or 3 half-hitches  Half Hitch

48 Hitches  Can be tied with webbing also  Clove Hitch

49 Hitches  Basis of the Prusik Hitch  Not to be used with webbing in anchor point because it can cut itself  Girth Hitch or Lark’s Foot

50 Hitches  Tensionless Hitch  Minimum 3 wraps, more if surface is smooth  Anchor at least 8x diameter of rope  Aligns with direction of pull  Same strength as rope because no load on knot

51 Hitches  Triple wrap in tandem for rescue loads  Should slip before failure  Prusik Hitch

52 Hitches  Use to secure the top of a stake for driving  Marlinspike Hitch

53 Hitches  Use to attach, then tension rope  Can be doubled up  Trucker’s Hitch

54 Bends  For Joining Two Ropes

55 Bends  Can be used as back up knot  Fisherman’s Bend

56 Bends  Suited for ropes of equal diameters  Commonly used to tie Prusik Loops  Requires no back up knot Parallel Ropes  Double Fisherman’s Bend

57 Bends  Figure Eight Bend  Suited for ropes of equal diameters

58 Bends  Sheet or Becket Bend  Join ropes of unequal diameters  When tied the bight goes in the larger rope

59 Utility Knots  A binding knot, not a joining bend  Used to keep objects together  Not to be used with synthetic ropes  Not a load bearing knot  Very low efficiency  Lose over half of rope strength  Square Knot or Reef Knot

60 Utility Knots  Result of improperly tied Reef (Square) Knot  Bitter ends on opposite sides It is said that sailors would secure their belongings in a ditty bag using the thief knot, often with the ends hidden. If another sailor went through the bag, the odds were high the thief would tie the bag back using the more common reef knot, revealing the tampering, hence the name.ditty bag  Thieve’s Knot

61 Square Thieves

62 Utility Knots  Result of improperly tied Reef Knot  Loops are over/under  Bitter ends on same side  Comes loose easily  Can jam and be hard to untie  Granny Knot

63 Utility Knots  An overhand follow through  Mainly used for webbing  Primary use is creating loops of webbing  Water Knot

64 Prusik Loops  Use 8mm kernmantle rope on ½” rescue rope  Tie with pair of Double or Triple Fisherman’s Knots  Short is 60”  Long is 72”  Use different colors for long and short

65 Knots off set from apex Fist Width Between Prusiks Triple Wrapped “ One to pull, two to haul ” Prusik Loops

66 Practice  A Rescue Team that handles rope only once a year can not be proficient in knot tying.  Practice

67 Semper Salus!

68 Other Resources Animated Knots by Grog TM available as Windows or Mac Desktop App or Mobile App on iPhone and Android platforms. Office of the State Fire Marshal. Low Angle Rope Rescue Operational Instructor and Student Manual. Sacramento, CA: State Fire Training, Accessed 21 Feb

69 Credits Original presentation created by Sherry Balon for Rural/Metro Corporation, Division of Training. Made available in the public domain at: Additional material from N.C. Rope Rescue Tech presentation, California Low Angle Rope Rescue Operational Manual and many others Adapted and enhanced for Lamorinda CERT by Duncan Seibert

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