Presentation on theme: "Semper Salus! Safety is Always the Number One Priority!"— Presentation transcript:
1Lamorinda Community Emergency Response Team Rescue Ropes, Anchors and Knots
2Semper Salus!Safety is Always the Number One Priority!
3CERT DisclaimerThis 2 hour presentation will NOT qualify you to perform Technical Rope Rescue!Do not put a life in jeopardy by exceeding your training.We are here to present a series of knots, anchors and other material to familiarize you with the proper tools for LOW ANGLE emergency use.Practice the knots as often as possible on household chores.
4Rope Rescue Definitions Low angle rope rescue refers to an environment in which the "on-rope" rescuers are predominately supported by the rescuers themselves (feet on the ground) and not the rope rescue system.High angle rope rescue refers to an environment in which the "on-rope" rescuers are predominantly supported by the rope rescue system.
5Safety FactorsRopes, webbing, carabiners and other hardware have tensile strengths (minimum breaking strength or MBS) rated in pounds or kN. 1 kN = 220 pounds.Safety Factors are used to limit the chance failure.NFPA Life Safety – 15:1NFPA Utility – 7:1Mountain Climbing – 10:1
10Rope Types – Life Safety A Life Safety Rope is normally a Static Kernmantle nylon rope.½ inch, MBS 9,000 lbs.Safety Factor 15:1Working strength 600 lbs.Static kernmantle (low stretch)Used to support personnelParallel fiber core prevents stretchDynamic kernmantle (high stretch)Shock-load absorbing abilityMountain climbing lineTwisted or Laid core allows stretchStatic ropes are typically manufactured in one color and have a contrasting color as a tracer. Dynamic ropes come in three to four colors.
11Rope Types – Life Safety Kernmantle is constructed withHigh-strength continuous fiber inner core (kern)Braided outer sheath (mantle)Kern is the load bearing element (about 70%) protected by the mantle
12Webbing Used for Most common Tying anchors Lashing victims into a litterTying personal harnessMost common1 inch, spiral weave, tubular, nylonMBS 4,000 lbs.
13WebbingSold in cut lengths that conform to color code standard followed by most rescue teams throughout North and South America:Green 1.5M FtYellow 3.5M 12 FtBlue M 15 FtOrange / Red 6 M 20 FtBlack M FtTo remember the colors in order: Get Your Boots On
14Webbing Flat Webbing Tubular Webbing Single layer of fabric Hard to tie into knotsMBS 3,000 lbs. for 1”Mainly used for straps and harnessesTubular Webbing2 types:Spiral Weave (Shuttle Loom)Edge Stitched (Needle Loom)Easy to tie into knotsMBS 4,000 lbs. for 1”
15Rope and Webbing Care Inspect before and after use Inspect for- Visual damageLoose MantleKinksStore away from sunlight, heat and chemicalsWash and air dry
16Rope Use and Limits Do not submit Life Safety Rope to shock loads Do not step on rope, you will grind in dirtUse edge protection on all ropes crossing sharp edges and on dirt slopesKeep a written log on all Life Safety RopeDamaged or worn Life Safety Rope can be decommissioned into Utility Rope with appropriate markings.
18AnchorsAn anchor is used to support the complete weight of the victim and the rescuers with all equipmentAn anchor must be “bomb-proof”Anchors may be natural or manmadeTreesRocks – “BFR”, a “very large rock”TrucksBuildings
19Anchors Select anchors that are in line with the pull of the system Consider that the direction of the pull may change with the movement of the loadDo not use trailer hitches or tow hooks as anchor points. Use main frames or axles for stable points of attachment.
20Anchors Picket systems require more resources and time Multi-point anchors can distribute shock load better and offer redundancy if a single anchor failsRedundant anchor points should be as strong as the main anchor pointBack-up anchors must have little slack in case of shock loading
21Anchors Angle between the legs should not exceed 90° Load-distributing anchor systems share the load and provide readjustment if a point fails
22Anchors Wrap 3 Pull 2 with webbing Load is off knot and web is doubled for strength
23AnchorsLoad Sharing with WebbingLoad divided among 3 anchor points
24Anchors Tensionless Hitch Minimum 3 wraps, more if surface is smooth Anchor at least 8x diameter of ropeAligns with direction of pullSame strength as rope because no load on knot
25Anchors Picket Anchor System A single picket driven 2 feet into firm soil has a safe working load of approximately 700 lb.A combination picket or three pickets in line and lashed together will hold about 1,800 lb.
28Names of rope parts A rope has many parts, each with a name To avoid confusion, here are the part names
29Names of line partsBight - a bend in the rope that does not cross back across itself.Loop - a bend in the rope that DOES cross itself.Elbow – the crossing of the ropeStanding end – the long end, not the knotted end.Standing part – the middle of the rope.Working end – the end where the knot is tied
30Stoppers A knot that stops a rope from exiting a pulley A knot that stops a primary knot from loosening by securing the working end
31StoppersOverhand KnotUsed to back up other knots
32Stoppers Double Overhand Stopper Knot Reliable, moderately large stopper
33Stoppers Figure Eight Stopper Knot Used to stop rope travel through a deviceBasis of the Figure Eight family of knots
54BendsFisherman’s BendCan be used as back up knot
55Bends Double Fisherman’s Bend Suited for ropes of equal diameters Commonly used to tie Prusik LoopsRequires no back up knotParallel Ropes
56BendsFigure Eight BendSuited for ropes of equal diameters
57Bends Sheet or Becket Bend Join ropes of unequal diameters When tied the bight goes in the larger rope
58Utility Knots Square Knot or Reef Knot A binding knot, not a joining bendUsed to keep objects togetherNot to be used with synthetic ropesNot a load bearing knotVery low efficiencyLose over half of rope strength
59Utility Knots Thieve’s Knot Result of improperly tied Reef (Square) KnotBitter ends on opposite sidesIt is said that sailors would secure their belongings in a ditty bag using the thief knot, often with the ends hidden. If another sailor went through the bag, the odds were high the thief would tie the bag back using the more common reef knot, revealing the tampering, hence the name.
67Other ResourcesAnimated Knots by GrogTM available as Windows or Mac Desktop App or Mobile App on iPhone and Android platforms.Office of the State Fire Marshal. Low Angle Rope Rescue Operational Instructor and Student Manual. Sacramento, CA: State Fire Training, Accessed 21 Feb
68CreditsOriginal presentation created by Sherry Balon for Rural/Metro Corporation, Division of Training. Made available in the public domain at:Additional material from N.C. Rope Rescue Tech presentation, California Low Angle Rope Rescue Operational Manual and many othersAdapted and enhanced for Lamorinda CERT by Duncan Seibert