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Definitions Knot – an intersection of interlaced cord – to entwine the rope to cause friction upon itself Hitch – Knot that wraps around an object in.

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Presentation on theme: "Definitions Knot – an intersection of interlaced cord – to entwine the rope to cause friction upon itself Hitch – Knot that wraps around an object in."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definitions Knot – an intersection of interlaced cord – to entwine the rope to cause friction upon itself Hitch – Knot that wraps around an object in such a way that if the object is removed, knot falls apart Bend – class of knots that join ropes together Loop – a turn of rope that crosses itself Bight – A turn of rope that does not cross itself Standing line – rope not fastened at rigging point Working line – end of rope used to rig or tie

3 Knots, Bends, Hitches These Elements should possess the following: Relatively easy to tie Identifiable Maintain configuration Minimal effect on rope strength Knots diminish strength of rope through bends % of strength lost – 2:1 Rule Relatively easy to untie after loading

4 Knots Steps for Tying Knots Select proper knot Dress the knot Properly align and straighten all of the knot parts removing extra twists and crosses Set the knot Tighten all parts of the tie so that rope parts touch and grab to cause friction Back up knot (safety)

5 Knots Overhand Square Knot Bowline Clove Hitch Simple Figure 8 Knot Figure 8 On A Bight Figure 8 Follow Through Figure 8 Bend Double Figure 8 On A Bight Butterfly Knot Double Fisherman’s (Grapevine) Bend Prusik Hitch Munter Hitch

6 Anchoring Techniques for securing the rope and other elements of the high angle system to something solid Two basic categories for anchors Single Point Anchors - Single secure connection for an anchor Multi Point Anchor System - One or more anchor points rigged to provide a structurally significant connection for elements of a rope rescue system Selection based on strength and location

7 Anchoring Anchor Assessment Strength – “Bombproof” or “Not” Design Stability Location Avoid Tunnel Vision

8 Anchor Points Natural Anchors Trees Size Root Systems Soil Types Live or Dead Rocks Marginal Structural Anchors Structural columns Projections from beams Supports for large machinery Stairwell support beams Brickwork with bulk Engineered anchors for window washers

9 Anchoring Single Point Applications Rope: High Strength Tie Off / Tensionless Hitch Characteristics: Strongest anchor point Tension is assumed through friction between the coils and the anchor Number of coils / wraps is dependant on the diameter of the anchor Not always the most advantageous use of rope Edge protection should be utilized Clove Hitch, Bowline, and Figure 8 Follow Through

10 Anchoring Single Point Applications Anchor Straps Characteristics: Strong and rapid to deploy Variables exist through different configurations and adjustability Labeling requirements per NFPA 1983 make their strength capabilities easily identifiable Create fixed anchor points where multiple components can be fixed Edge protection should be utilized

11 Anchoring Single Point Applications Webbing / Pre sewn Slings Should be duplicated for strength and redundancy Wrap 3 pull 2 is strongest configuration Time intensive Requires edge protection

12 Anchoring Multi Point Anchor Systems Utilized when single bombproof anchors are not accessible or present Tension Back Tie LDA (Load Distributing Anchor) An anchor system that maintains and redistributes (if one anchor point fails) near equal loading on multiple anchor points despite direction of pull LSA (Load Sharing Anchor) An anchor system that distributes the load between multiple anchor points but does not adjust to direction changes in pull.

13 Anchoring Picket Systems

14 Critical Angles Understanding of Forces Physics of Force Amplification from Critical Angles - Anchor Tension Rigging Precautions Don’t compromise directional anchors Use multi point anchor systems only as a last resort keep inside angles 90° or less, never more than 120°

15 Critical Angles Less than 45 Degrees = load distribution that is equal to or less than the load itself at each anchor point Greater than 45 Degrees (NEVER more than 120) = Amplification of the load and its distribution to each anchor

16 Critical Angles 100 lbs 71 lbs 100+ lbs 100 lbs Any angle greater than 120 degrees applies more than the load to each anchor

17 Anchor Points




21 Anchoring Anchors should be created for two primary components Mainline: Primary line of movement for rescuers and victims Directionals: Used to bring the mainline into a more favorable position or angle Belay: Safety line designed to provide protection against a fall or system failure. Belay lines should avoid the use of directionals and should take the shortest direct path to the load

22 Belay Operations Components Belay Device or Hitch Belayer Anchor Point Belay Line (Rope) Attached to Rescuer / Victim Attachment Points on Harness Speed and Functionality – Attach to the midline rigging component on the harness

23 Belay Operations Two Load Design Applications 300# Design Load Auxiliary Equipment with “L” design loads. 600# Design Load Tandem Prusik Belay (TPB) LRH, PMP, Paired Prusiks Auxiliary Equipment with “G” design loads.

24 Belay Operations Belay systems will be utilized at all times during this course and should be utilized during rescue events. Rare situations that might exclude the use of a separate belay system would be: An experienced rescuer that feels a belay will be a hindrance to rescue efforts Multiple lines risking entanglement Free drops where spinning may cause entanglements Limited access requiring a bottom belay

25 Belay Operations Maintain proper amount of slack When lowering or descending, pull “Z”,s and maintain slack at top side so that rescuer has a relatively taught line from their perspective When hauling or ascending, keep taught. Ensure Fall / Failure protection capacity is present Utilize standard communications and safety checks Rescuer – “On Belay” (Prompt) Belayer – “Belay On” (Response)

26 Belay Operations Edge Tender Individual who maintains communication and oversight of operation between the rescuer and the top side Belay Commands: Too much slack = “Tension the Belay” Not enough slack = “Slack the Belay Edge Tender ideally has visual and verbal contact with both parties Should have a safety line attached due to proximity of edge

27 Main Line Operations Two Categories of Application Rescuer Based – Descending (Rappelling) and Ascending (Climbing) Team Based – Lowering and Hauling Systems Rescuer Based Predominantly used to gain initial access to victim for assessment / packaging Team Based Predominantly used for victim movement

28 Rescuer Based Operations Rappelling requires proper manipulation of the Descent Control Device (BBR) Signs of effective manipulation are: Controlled descent with minimum physical effort Controlled descent with appropriate and consistent speed so that the rope is not damaged by heat and anchors are not damaged by shock loads Ability to stop descent at anytime Ability to tie off securely and operate hands free of the rope Ability to operate in any body position including inversion

29 Rappelling

30 Rescuer Based Operations Ascending / Climbing Ascending - a further development of competency in the vertical environment Change Over - a transition from a rappel to ascent and back to a rappel Types of Ascenders Friction hitches (the most common is the Prusik Hitch) Mechanical ascenders Typically performed in self rescue applications

31 Rescuer Based Operations Pick Off Rescue Techniques (Level II KSA) Single rescuer has direct contact with rescue subject Generally performed when rescue subject is uninjured or slightly injured Completed by rescuer being lowered or on rappel Involves attaching rescue subject directly to rescuer’s rappel system

32 Rescuer Based Operations Pick Off Rescue Techniques Will require line transfer if victim is on rope If victim is not on rope, a hasty harness will be required Victim’s injuries may require c spine precautions to be taken Line transfer rescues may be situation in which Belay system might not be used due to propensity for entanglement

33 Pick Off Rescues


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