Presentation on theme: "Mod 5: Technical Skills I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mod 5: Technical Skills I Rope Rescue Level IMod 5: Technical Skills I
2 DefinitionsKnot – an intersection of interlaced cord – to entwine the rope to cause friction upon itselfHitch – Knot that wraps around an object in such a way that if the object is removed, knot falls apartBend – class of knots that join ropes togetherLoop – a turn of rope that crosses itselfBight – A turn of rope that does not cross itselfStanding line – rope not fastened at rigging pointWorking line – end of rope used to rig or tie
3 Knots, Bends, Hitches These Elements should possess the following: Relatively easy to tieIdentifiableMaintain configurationMinimal effect on rope strengthKnots diminish strength of rope through bends% of strength lost – 2:1 RuleRelatively easy to untie after loadingElements selected for use should not be so complex that they cannot be tied, identified, or untied with speed and proficiencyElements selected should maintain configuration when loaded4:1 rule / 2:1 ruleRope does not significantly lose strength until it has a bend less than 4 X its diameter (this rule applies to natural fiber rope more than synthetic which realistically uses a margin of 2:1). The 4:1 rule also applies to safety and efficiency margin for pulleys. The diameter of a pulley should be at least 4 X the diameter of the rope to insure safety and efficiency.
4 Knots Steps for Tying Knots Select proper knot Dress the knot Properly align and straighten all of the knot parts removing extra twists and crossesSet the knotTighten all parts of the tie so that rope parts touch and grab to cause frictionBack up knot (safety)Not all knots require overhand safeties or back up knots but it is NEVER wrong to do so.Openings or bites and tails of knots should be appropriately sizedTying knots just large enough to accommodate the application is a good fundamental to keep elements as condensed as possible
5 Knots Overhand Square Knot Bowline Clove Hitch Simple Figure 8 Knot Figure 8 On A BightFigure 8 Follow ThroughFigure 8 BendDouble Figure 8 On A BightButterfly KnotDouble Fisherman’s (Grapevine) BendPrusik HitchMunter HitchPractical Session:Provide each student with a section of rope and systematically demonstrate each knot, bend, hitchInstruct students to watch methodology first and then have them duplicate the processExplain the application of each knot, bend, hitch while demonstrating
6 AnchoringTechniques for securing the rope and other elements of the high angle system to something solidTwo basic categories for anchorsSingle Point Anchors - Single secure connection for an anchorMulti Point Anchor System - One or more anchor points rigged to provide a structurally significant connection for elements of a rope rescue systemSelection based on strength and locationTwo basic categoriesSingle anchor pointsMultiple anchor points used to create anchor systemsDeciding factors for selection of single point vs. systemStrength “Bombproof”Location
7 Anchoring Anchor Assessment Strength – “Bombproof” or “Not” Design StabilityLocationAvoid Tunnel VisionStrengthSufficient or not to support load and forces that will be appliedDesignCylindrical, Open or Close ended, I beam, Angle – These designs affect the surface contact between the anchor and the mechanism of attachment will be determining factors in application selectionSharp edges, burrs, smooth or rough also affect edge protection and positional control of the anchor point (discuss use of duck tape to keep anchors in place)StabilityIs the anchor kinetic or moveable – Large rocks, vehicles, etc..Connections – root systems, welds, bolts, etc… - must be assessed as part of the strength or overall capability of the anchorLocationDoes the location of the anchor provide optimal design and function of the rope system or will directionals be requiredInferior anchors may be selected if the superior anchor would result in inefficient rescue operationsAnchor selection requires broad thinking at times
8 Anchor Points Natural Anchors Trees Rocks Structural Anchors SizeRoot SystemsSoil TypesLive or DeadRocksMarginalStructural AnchorsStructural columnsProjections from beamsSupports for large machineryStairwell support beamsBrickwork with bulkEngineered anchors for window washersTrees with solid foundations and viability and appropriate diameterRocks are marginal due to their instability and the difficulty to maintain the position of the attachment pointStructural elements must also be considered for compositionCast Iron, Mortar, Rust / Decay, etc…Engineered anchors will typically be labeled with load design
9 Anchoring Single Point Applications Rope: High Strength Tie Off / Tensionless HitchCharacteristics:Strongest anchor pointTension is assumed through friction between the coils and the anchorNumber of coils / wraps is dependant on the diameter of the anchorNot always the most advantageous use of ropeEdge protection should be utilizedClove Hitch, Bowline, and Figure 8 Follow ThroughStrongest application:Strength of the rope itself is not lost through knots because the attachment figure 8 and carabiner are not loaded when the hitch is done correctlyThe smaller the anchor = the more wraps and conversely for the larger the anchorTensionless hitch requires the end of the rope to be utilized and the rest of the rope to be deployed over the edge unless the rope bag is being passed around the anchor during construction (difficult to manage). The midpoint of the rope cannot be utilized to maximize usage if the rope length accommodates such an application.Exposing the rope to potential abrading or cutting elements on the surface of the anchor require edge protectionClove, Figure 8, and bowline can be utilized as anchor attachments in certain applications – predominantly victim packaging.
10 Anchoring Single Point Applications Anchor Straps Characteristics: Strong and rapid to deployVariables exist through different configurations and adjustabilityLabeling requirements per NFPA 1983 make their strength capabilities easily identifiableCreate fixed anchor points where multiple components can be fixedEdge protection should be utilizedCan be configured as choker, basket or straight depending on space and loadCan be wrapped around an anchor multiple times if needed to condense rigging spaceSome anchor straps have adjustable lengths – typically not as strongRigging plates can be attached to anchor straps for multiple attachment points and the ability to change those attachment points without altering the anchorRope sleeves or fire hose can be pre rigged to anchor straps for edge protection
11 Anchoring Single Point Applications Webbing / Pre sewn Slings Should be duplicated for strength and redundancyWrap 3 pull 2 is strongest configurationTime intensiveRequires edge protectionUse of webbing for anchors has been replaced by anchor strapsToo slow to configureDifficulty in equally loading both segments.
12 Anchoring Multi Point Anchor Systems Utilized when single bombproof anchors are not accessible or presentTension Back TieLDA (Load Distributing Anchor)An anchor system that maintains and redistributes (if one anchor point fails) near equal loading on multiple anchor points despite direction of pullLSA (Load Sharing Anchor)An anchor system that distributes the load between multiple anchor points but does not adjust to direction changes in pull.Describe Tension Back Tie, LDA, LSATension Back Tie requires a support or back up anchor that is in line with direction of pull or multiple anchors that can be collected with a centering point at the primary anchorLDA results in pendulum and elongation if failure occurs of one of the anchorsLSA results in pendulum if failure occurs of one of the anchors
13 Anchoring Picket Systems Comprised of pickets that are 4’ – 5’ in length of at least 1” diameter. (steel)Drive pickets at least half depth at 15 degree anglesLash pickets together utilizing clove hitches and at least 3 wrapsTension lashings by twisting ½” steel 4 – 6 times and drive it into the groundStandard picket systems are 3 pickets by 3 pickets spaced approximately the length of the picketCan only be established in solid soil bases.
14 Critical Angles Understanding of Forces Physics of Force Amplification from Critical Angles - Anchor TensionRigging PrecautionsDon’t compromise directional anchorsUse multi point anchor systems only as a last resortkeep inside angles 90° or less, never more than 120°Systems should always be constructed with appropriate critical angles in mindExplain Anchor Tension and lateral forcesDirectionals and Multi point anchors can be compromised when angles exceed 120 degrees.High Lines are examples of systems that exceed critical angle requirements and they require very specialized rigging and redundancies.
15 Critical AnglesLess than 45 Degrees = load distribution that is equal to or less than the load itself at each anchor pointGreater than 45 Degrees (NEVER more than 120) = Amplification of the load and its distribution to each anchor
16 Critical Angles 100+ lbs 100+ lbs 71 lbs 71 lbs 100 lbs 12071 lbs71 lbs100 lbsAny angle greater than 120 degrees applies more than the load to each anchor90100 lbs
17 Anchor PointsDiscuss Back Tie Technique, Anchor Usage, Vehicle Safety Steps
18 Anchor PointsTensionless Hitches / High strength Tie Offs with Back Ties
21 Anchoring Anchors should be created for two primary components Mainline: Primary line of movement for rescuers and victimsDirectionals: Used to bring the mainline into a more favorable position or angleBelay: Safety line designed to provide protection against a fall or system failure.Belay lines should avoid the use of directionals and should take the shortest direct path to the loadThe primary anchor that should be established is the belay anchor because it requires a direct route to the loadThe same anchor can be utilized for both the belay anchor point and the mainline anchor point if it is engineered to sustain all load possibilities without compromise.
22 Belay Operations Components Belay Device or Hitch Belayer Anchor Point Belay Line (Rope)Attached to Rescuer / VictimAttachment Points on HarnessSpeed and Functionality – Attach to the midline rigging component on the harnessAttachment Points on HarnessThe Belay should be attached midline and contained so that if loaded it will not result in the rescuer hanging from their side or backRedundancy – Tying the belay around multiple midline fabric components of the harness afford a high degree of safety but are slow and cumbersome to rig and un rig and are not recommended by most manufacturers.Speed and Functionality – Attaching the belay to the rigging component of the harness is within the manufacturer’s design configurations and is much faster and easier to rig and unrig.
23 Belay Operations Two Load Design Applications 300# Design Load Auxiliary Equipment with “L” design loads.600# Design LoadTandem Prusik Belay (TPB)LRH, PMP, Paired PrusiksAuxiliary Equipment with “G” design loads.Briefly describe belay components and their load designs.
24 Belay OperationsBelay systems will be utilized at all times during this course and should be utilized during rescue events.Rare situations that might exclude the use of a separate belay system would be:An experienced rescuer that feels a belay will be a hindrance to rescue effortsMultiple lines risking entanglementFree drops where spinning may cause entanglementsLimited access requiring a bottom belaySeparate belay systems afford safety and redundancyBottom belays do not work with all descent control devicesBelayer can only exert as much pressure as body weight or rope can slip out of grip of belayerBelayer is in danger of being hit by objectsDoes not provide back up for failure of main line anchor, or rappel devicesThe elimination of a belay line requires significant risk benefit analysis and should require consensus from operational command and the safety officer.
25 Belay Operations Maintain proper amount of slack When lowering or descending, pull “Z”,s and maintain slack at top side so that rescuer has a relatively taught line from their perspectiveWhen hauling or ascending, keep taught.Ensure Fall / Failure protection capacity is presentUtilize standard communications and safety checksRescuer – “On Belay” (Prompt)Belayer – “Belay On” (Response)Proper SlackPulling “Z”,s affords enough slack to stay ahead of the load movement safely without hindering load movement or loading the belay device.Fall / Failure protectionDifferent devices utilize different mechanisms to seize the load if fall or failure occursEnsure that the mechanism is properly set or in operating order by applying a pull test prior to deploying the rescuerCommunications / SafetySafety checks should be conducted of the system and the rescuerCommunication sequence should be systematic
26 Belay Operations Edge Tender Individual who maintains communication and oversight of operation between the rescuer and the top sideBelay Commands:Too much slack = “Tension the Belay”Not enough slack = “Slack the BelayEdge Tender ideally has visual and verbal contact with both partiesShould have a safety line attached due to proximity of edgeDiscuss Edge Tender Responsibilities:SafetyLine ManagementCommunications
27 Main Line Operations Two Categories of Application Rescuer Based Rescuer Based – Descending (Rappelling) and Ascending (Climbing)Team Based – Lowering and Hauling SystemsRescuer BasedPredominantly used to gain initial access to victim for assessment / packagingTeam BasedPredominantly used for victim movement
28 Rescuer Based Operations Rappelling requires proper manipulation of the Descent Control Device (BBR)Signs of effective manipulation are:Controlled descent with minimum physical effortControlled descent with appropriate and consistent speed so that the rope is not damaged by heat and anchors are not damaged by shock loadsAbility to stop descent at anytimeAbility to tie off securely and operate hands free of the ropeAbility to operate in any body position including inversionBBR’s are engineered to control the rope through friction – A skilled rescuer manipulates the rack to “do the work for him”.Rope should not be fed through the rack and speed of travel should be consistent – this is all managed through correct manipulation of the rackRescuers must possess the skill sets to stop, tie of, and perform rescue actions whether self rescue or pick offs which may require inversion.Specific skills will be taught in hands on session.
29 RappellingRappelling – Note Body Position and hand placements
30 Rescuer Based Operations Ascending / ClimbingAscending - a further development of competency in the vertical environmentChange Over - a transition from a rappel to ascent and back to a rappelTypes of AscendersFriction hitches (the most common is the Prusik Hitch)Mechanical ascendersTypically performed in self rescue applicationsIn rescue applications, ascending is typically only performed for self rescue in which a personal component (gear, clothing, physical element) have become caught in the BBR and the load must be taken off of the rack to correct the problem.May also be utilized perform rigging and anchoring at elevated objectives.Specific skills will be taught in hands on session.
31 Rescuer Based Operations Pick Off Rescue Techniques (Level II KSA)Single rescuer has direct contact with rescue subjectGenerally performed when rescue subject is uninjured or slightly injuredCompleted by rescuer being lowered or on rappelInvolves attaching rescue subject directly to rescuer’s rappel systemPick Off Rescues are a Level II Skill Set per NFPA 1006 but are an imperative component in a rescuers skill sets to be effective as part of a rescue team.The Victim is typically trapped at an elevated level and unable to climb up or down due to injury or environment.
32 Rescuer Based Operations Pick Off Rescue TechniquesWill require line transfer if victim is on ropeIf victim is not on rope, a hasty harness will be requiredVictim’s injuries may require c spine precautions to be takenLine transfer rescues may be situation in which Belay system might not be used due to propensity for entanglementSpecifics of pick off Rescue Techniques will be taught in hands on session
33 Pick Off RescuesLine Transfer Pick Off Rescues - Inversion