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Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist.

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Presentation on theme: "Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist.
Basic Haul Systems First Reponders Rope Rescue For Presented By: Joseph R. LaPlant Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist.

2 Course Objectives Understand and use rope rescue terminology and equipment Be able to list many uses of rope and rope hardware Be able to recognize and list all safety considerations associated with rope rescue operations

3 Course Objectives Recognize and list all components of a haul system
Be able to describe and calculate mechanical advantage Be able to describe proper basic maintenance and care of rope and rope equipment 

4 Course Objectives Be able to describe and tie basic life safety knots
Perform a rescue operation utilizing a rope rescue haul system - Minimum score of 70% is required on written exam - 100% of all critical on performance checklist must be achieved for successful course completion.

5 Haul Systems Simple or compound rope systems, labeled by mechanical advantage, used to forcibly pull or haul an object over certain distance

6 Haul Systems Consist of Static Kern Mantle rope an anchor point
pulleys carabiners rope grabs (prusiks or cams) Must utilize at least ½ inch static kern mantle rope meeting NFPA 1983 specifications.

7 NFPA 1983 The standard for life safety rope and safe working loads.
Single person working load: 300 lbs. Two person working load: 600 lbs. Rope rescue should always utilize a 15:1 safety ratio (load x 15) Two person working load: (600 x 15 = 9000 lbs)

8 Rope Construction Laid Rope
Made of multiple strands of naturally occurring fibers Fibers are five to 14 ft in length Fibers are twisted together to form a single length Examples: hemp and manila

9 Rope Construction Braided Rope Cotton fiber ropes
Constructed by braiding fibers together Strands are braided into a single length of rope Examples: sailing rope

10 Rope Construction Braided-on-braid Cotton fiber ropes
Constructed using a hollow core, cotton construction Braid-on-braid ropes are usually used in marine applications

11 Rope Construction Kernmantle
The Kern, is a high strength inner core constructed of a continuous synthetic material which runs the entire length of the rope. The Mantle, is a braided outer cover or sheath that protects the kern from cuts and abrasions. The core of kernmantle rope makes up to 75% of the rope overall length.

12 Static vs. Dynamic Kernmantle is made of parallel filaments or filaments spiraled into cords Dynamic – stretches 20% to 40% of its length when under a load. Static – stretches only 2% to 3% its length when under a load.

13 Types of Rope Utility Rope – Any rope used for applications other than life safety. Water Rescue Rope – made of polypropylene, water rescue ropes cannot be used for rappelling. Life Safety Rope – any rope meeting the NFPA standard 1983 for life safety applications. 

14 Factors Which Affect Rope
bends hardware knots water extreme temp. tree bark concrete chemical exposure rocks ANY ROPE THAT HAS RECEIVED A SHOCK SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE IMMEDIATELY!

15 Care and Maintenance Clean using mild soap and water
Inspect after each use Never wash on the ground or in top loading wash machines Machine wash only in approved extractors (Daisy prior to washing in extractors) Air dry only; DO NOT DRY IN THE SUN!

16 Storage Store in bags away from abrasives and chemicals
Always store away from sunlight Periodically inspect for abrasion and tears Pre-packed systems should be periodically broken down and rebuilt

17 Webbing Two Types Tubular – rated at 4,000 lbs end to end; nylon forms a continuous tube Edge Stitched – single nylon layer stitched together; NOT FOR RESCUE!

18 Carabiners Five Basic Parts Spine Latch Gate Lock sleeve Hinge Pin

19 Carabiners Aluminum Used in sport applications Lighter, less expensive
Do not rust or wear out like steel Breaking strength up to 6,000 lbs

20 Carabiners Steel ALWAYS used for rescue
Stronger, less susceptible to abrasion More expensive Requires regular maintenance Breaking strength up to 13,000 lbs

21 Descent Control Devices
Provide rope control utilizing varying levels of friction. NFPA 1983 requires general use DCDs to with stand a 2,400 lbs load with out damaging the rope DCDs must with stand 5,000 lbs loads without failure

22 Descent Control Devices
Rescue Figure-8 Ears prevent rope from slipping up forming a girth hitch Rescue 8s can be tied off, preventing the rope from slipping

23 Descent Control Devices
Rappel Racks Consist of several steel or aluminum bars mounted on a U-shaped rack Bars create variable degrees of friction Rope threaded straight through a rack eliminates “turning” encountered with Figure 8s

24 Descent Control Devices
Figure 8 Designed only as a descent or rappelling device Only for rappels of 100 ft. or less

25 Ascending Devices Used for one way movement of a rope and for climbing ropes. Examples: Cam ascenders Handled ascenders Prusiks

26 Ascending Devices Mechanical Ascenders
Can be applied to any working rope Apply perpendicular pressure to the rope Mechanical ascenders can “de- sheath” a rope with as little as 1,000 lbs of pressure

27 Ascending Devices Prusik Cords Can be used as “soft rope grabs”
Handle up to 3,000 lbs Create mechanical advantage for haul systems Can be used under shocked loads with out fear of “de-sheathing” ropes

28 Pulleys Pulleys are used for: Change in directions To reduce friction
Create mechanical advantage for haul systems

29 Pulleys Pulley Construction Sheaves Side Plates Axles Bearings
NFPA 1983 states that pulleys must withstand 5,000 lbs static without distortion and 8,000 lbs with out failure

30 Special Pulleys Some pulleys are designed to solve technical rope problems Prusik Minding Knot-passing Double or Triple Sheave

31 Edge Protection Up to 90% of all rope failures are due to improper edge protection! Edge Protectors Reduce rope abrasion Can be made of canvas, hose or turnout coats Dynamic Protectors – help reduce friction and are used when ropes are moving across surfaces

32 Harnesses Requirements are listed in NFPA 1983
Must have permanent labeling; listing harness class, date of manufacture and sizing information

33 Harnesses Harness Classes Class I Seat style
For emergency escape and one person loads NOT FOR RESCUE

34 Harnesses Class II Seat style approved for rescue
Can be used for two person loads

35 Harnesses Class III Full body harnesses
Used when inversion is possible Handles one or two person loads Requires no prior knowledge on the part of the patient once in the harness

36 Harnesses Ladder Belts Waist belts May be used as positioning devices
For emergency self rescue only

37 Knot Terms Bend Running end Hitch Working end Anchor Standing part
Safety Whip Running end Working end Standing part Bight Round Turn

38 Rescue Knots Clove Hitch Overhand Water Knot Figure 8 Munter Hitch
Tensionless Wrap Overhand Figure 8 Figure 8 On-a-bight Figure 8 Bend Figure 8 Follow Through

39 Student Activity #1 Knot Tying

40 Anchor Points Type I – Natural Anchors Rocks Trees
Type II – Manmade Anchors Vehicles Utility Poles

41 Anchor Considerations
How much is the anticipated load? Is the anchor suitable given the direction of the load? Does the anchor have sharp edges? Is the anchor rusted, broken or rotten? How will you attach to the anchor? Does the anchor have sufficient mass?

42 Attaching to an Anchor Use 1” tubular webbing Double webbing
Approach must not exceed 120 degrees 90 degrees is optimal for field use

43 All anchors should be edge protected!
Attaching to an Anchor Use a 15:1 safety ratio Anchors must be “bomb proof” Anchors should weigh the same or more than the anticipated load Trees should only be used if they have a diameter greater than 4 inches All anchors should be edge protected!

44 Anchoring to Vehicles Should only be used as a last resort!
Keep anchor straps away from hot surfaces Chock all wheels Shut off engine Remove keys/shut off batteries Post a “guard” Never use vehicles to haul people!

45 Secondary Anchors Run mainline for primary to secondary and tie it off
Should be as close to “in-line” with primaries as possible Parallel anchors may be used as a single primary anchor

46 Terrain Flat Angles of 0 to 15 degrees
Rescuers may carry litter with out falling No rope system required No need to “tie in” rescuers No technical equipment or training needed

47 Terrain Low Angle of 15 to 40 degrees
Incline or environment makes carry difficult Tag line or anchored system needed to stabilize the litter Rescuers not required to “tie in” to the litter Risk of fall injuries are increased

48 Terrain Steep Angle of 40 to 65 degrees
Haul system required to move patient Failure may have catastrophic result for rescuers and patient Load is shared by rescuers and patient Requires rescuers to “tie in” to litters

49 Terrain High or Vertical Angle of 65 to 90 degrees
Attendant required, tied in to the litter Rope system for raising and lowering required Attendant suspended on separate line for the litter bridle Failure of system would cause serious injury or death.

50 Mechanical Advantage Haul systems are labeled by mechanical advantage, i.e. 3:1, 4:1, etc. Each turn in a haul systems yields one unit of mechanical advantage using pulleys In a 3:1 system, for every unit of input force, the system will yield three units of output force

51 Mechanical Advantage Conversely in a 3:1 system, for every three feet of rope pulled through the system, the load will travel one foot Simple haul systems should never exceed 5:1 mechanical advantage

52 Haul Systems Uses Haul systems have many uses on various emergency scenes such as: Auto rescue Machinery Rescue Trench Confined Space Water rescue Structural collapse Train rescue

53 Components of a Haul System
The following is a list of the most basic haul system components Carabiners Pulleys Prusiks or Cams Anchor point Rescue rope A load

54 Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig”
Student Activity #2 Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig”

55 Hauling Victims Once a system is constructed, spinal precautions must be taken to successfully move the victim There are two methods for tying litters, SKEDS and backboards into a haul system

56 Hauling Victims Direct Tie-in Method Bridle Method
Tying the rope directly to the movement apparatus Bridle Method Utilizing 1” tubular webbing and a carabiner to connect the apparatus to the system

57 Securing The Patient Patients should be secured utilizing C-spine precautions Patients should be secured using provided safety belts and 1” tubular webbing Starting at the patients feet; webbing should be weaved in an “X” pattern to the top of the victim’s shoulders

58 Student Activity #3 Securing a patient

59 Haul System Safety Establish a plan prior to constructing or loading rope systems Be familiar with all equipment Know operating commands and principles Understand mechanical advantage

60 Haul System Safety Know equipment and shock load limitations
Have enough manpower on scene to properly facilitate a rescue Never use mechanical devices, such as powered vehicles, to pull rope through haul systems

61 Rope Safety Follow all manufacturer recommendations for cleaning, storage and service life Keep ropes protected; away from corrosives, abrasives, open flames and cigarettes Always have an adequate length of rope before attempting the rescue

62 Rope Safety Rope hardware should be taken out of service immediately if dropped from a height of waist level Drops can create stress fractures in the which can lead to failure Dropped equipment should be X-rayed or replaced

63 Rope Safety Remove all knives, keys and dangling jewelry
Edge guards should always be employed Always wear gloves, helmets and eye protection

64 Rope Safety Designate one rescuer as the “edge man”
Haul teams should only follow commands from the “edge man” Watch for falling rocks, landslides, fraying ropes or obstructions Never let go of the mainline until the system is set and the “edge man” gives the “SET” command

65 Verbal Commands The following are the commands that should be used when hauling a victim These commands should only be given by the “edge man” or “edge officer” The only person the haul team should take orders from is the “edge man”

66 Verbal Commands Safety is set On Belay Slack Belay On STOP
Off Belay Belay Off On Belay Belay On Prepare to Haul Haul Set

67 Practical Skills

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