Presentation on theme: "Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist."— Presentation transcript:
1 Shady Valley Fire Prot. Dist. Basic Haul SystemsFirst RepondersRope Rescue ForPresented By:Joseph R. LaPlantShady Valley Fire Prot. Dist.
2 Course ObjectivesUnderstand and use rope rescue terminology and equipmentBe able to list many uses of rope and rope hardwareBe able to recognize and list all safety considerations associated with rope rescue operations
3 Course Objectives Recognize and list all components of a haul system Be able to describe and calculate mechanical advantageBe able to describe proper basic maintenance and care of rope and rope equipment
4 Course Objectives Be able to describe and tie basic life safety knots Perform a rescue operation utilizing a rope rescue haul system- Minimum score of 70% is required on written exam- 100% of all critical on performance checklist must be achieved for successful course completion.
5 Haul SystemsSimple or compound rope systems, labeled by mechanical advantage, used to forcibly pull or haul an object over certain distance
6 Haul Systems Consist of Static Kern Mantle rope an anchor point pulleyscarabinersrope grabs (prusiks or cams)Must utilize at least ½ inch static kern mantle rope meeting NFPA 1983 specifications.
7 NFPA 1983 The standard for life safety rope and safe working loads. Single person working load: 300 lbs.Two person working load: 600 lbs.Rope rescue should always utilize a 15:1 safety ratio (load x 15)Two person working load:(600 x 15 = 9000 lbs)
8 Rope Construction Laid Rope Made of multiple strands of naturally occurring fibersFibers are five to 14 ft in lengthFibers are twisted together to form a single lengthExamples: hemp and manila
9 Rope Construction Braided Rope Cotton fiber ropes Constructed by braiding fibers togetherStrands are braided into a single length of ropeExamples: sailing rope
10 Rope Construction Braided-on-braid Cotton fiber ropes Constructed using a hollow core, cotton constructionBraid-on-braid ropes are usually used in marine applications
11 Rope Construction Kernmantle The Kern, is a high strength inner core constructed of a continuous synthetic material which runs the entire length of the rope.The Mantle, is a braided outer cover or sheath that protects the kern from cuts and abrasions.The core of kernmantle rope makes up to 75% of the rope overall length.
12 Static vs. DynamicKernmantle is made of parallel filaments or filaments spiraled into cordsDynamic – stretches 20% to 40% of its length when under a load.Static – stretches only 2% to 3% its length when under a load.
13 Types of RopeUtility Rope – Any rope used for applications other than life safety.Water Rescue Rope – made of polypropylene, water rescue ropes cannot be used for rappelling.Life Safety Rope – any rope meeting the NFPA standard 1983 for life safety applications.
14 Factors Which Affect Rope bendshardwareknotswaterextreme temp.tree barkconcretechemical exposurerocksANY ROPE THAT HAS RECEIVED A SHOCK SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE IMMEDIATELY!
15 Care and Maintenance Clean using mild soap and water Inspect after each useNever wash on the ground or in top loading wash machinesMachine wash only in approved extractors(Daisy prior to washing in extractors)Air dry only; DO NOT DRY IN THE SUN!
16 Storage Store in bags away from abrasives and chemicals Always store away from sunlightPeriodically inspect for abrasion and tearsPre-packed systems should be periodically broken down and rebuilt
17 WebbingTwo TypesTubular – rated at 4,000 lbs end to end; nylon forms a continuous tubeEdge Stitched – single nylon layer stitched together; NOT FOR RESCUE!
19 Carabiners Aluminum Used in sport applications Lighter, less expensive Do not rust or wear out like steelBreaking strength up to 6,000 lbs
20 Carabiners Steel ALWAYS used for rescue Stronger, less susceptible to abrasionMore expensiveRequires regular maintenanceBreaking strength up to 13,000 lbs
21 Descent Control Devices Provide rope control utilizing varying levels of friction.NFPA 1983 requires general use DCDs to with stand a 2,400 lbs load with out damaging the ropeDCDs must with stand 5,000 lbs loads without failure
22 Descent Control Devices Rescue Figure-8Ears prevent rope from slipping up forming a girth hitchRescue 8s can be tied off, preventing the rope from slipping
23 Descent Control Devices Rappel RacksConsist of several steel or aluminum bars mounted on a U-shaped rackBars create variable degrees of frictionRope threaded straight through a rack eliminates “turning” encountered with Figure 8s
24 Descent Control Devices Figure 8Designed only as a descent or rappelling deviceOnly for rappels of 100 ft. or less
25 Ascending DevicesUsed for one way movement of a rope and for climbing ropes.Examples: Cam ascendersHandled ascendersPrusiks
26 Ascending Devices Mechanical Ascenders Can be applied to any working ropeApply perpendicular pressure to the ropeMechanical ascenders can “de- sheath” a rope with as little as1,000 lbs of pressure
27 Ascending Devices Prusik Cords Can be used as “soft rope grabs” Handle up to 3,000 lbsCreate mechanical advantage for haul systemsCan be used under shocked loads with out fear of “de-sheathing” ropes
28 Pulleys Pulleys are used for: Change in directions To reduce friction Create mechanical advantage for haul systems
29 Pulleys Pulley Construction Sheaves Side Plates Axles Bearings NFPA 1983 states that pulleys must withstand 5,000 lbs static without distortion and 8,000 lbs with out failure
30 Special PulleysSome pulleys are designed to solve technical rope problemsPrusik MindingKnot-passingDouble or Triple Sheave
31 Edge ProtectionUp to 90% of all rope failures are due to improper edge protection!Edge ProtectorsReduce rope abrasionCan be made of canvas, hose or turnout coatsDynamic Protectors – help reduce friction and are used when ropes are moving across surfaces
32 Harnesses Requirements are listed in NFPA 1983 Must have permanent labeling; listing harness class, date of manufacture and sizing information
33 Harnesses Harness Classes Class I Seat style For emergency escape and one person loadsNOT FOR RESCUE
34 Harnesses Class II Seat style approved for rescue Can be used for two person loads
35 Harnesses Class III Full body harnesses Used when inversion is possibleHandles one or two person loadsRequires no prior knowledge on the part of the patient once in the harness
36 Harnesses Ladder Belts Waist belts May be used as positioning devices For emergency self rescue only
37 Knot Terms Bend Running end Hitch Working end Anchor Standing part SafetyWhipRunning endWorking endStanding partBightRound Turn
40 Anchor Points Type I – Natural Anchors Rocks Trees Type II – Manmade AnchorsVehiclesUtility Poles
41 Anchor Considerations How much is the anticipated load?Is the anchor suitable given the direction of the load?Does the anchor have sharp edges?Is the anchor rusted, broken or rotten?How will you attach to the anchor?Does the anchor have sufficient mass?
42 Attaching to an Anchor Use 1” tubular webbing Double webbing Approach must not exceed 120 degrees90 degrees is optimal for field use
43 All anchors should be edge protected! Attaching to an AnchorUse a 15:1 safety ratioAnchors must be “bomb proof”Anchors should weigh the same or more than the anticipated loadTrees should only be used if they have a diameter greater than 4 inchesAll anchors should be edge protected!
44 Anchoring to Vehicles Should only be used as a last resort! Keep anchor straps away from hot surfacesChock all wheelsShut off engineRemove keys/shut off batteriesPost a “guard”Never use vehicles to haul people!
45 Secondary Anchors Run mainline for primary to secondary and tie it off Should be as close to “in-line” with primaries as possibleParallel anchors may be used as a single primary anchor
46 Terrain Flat Angles of 0 to 15 degrees Rescuers may carry litter with out fallingNo rope system requiredNo need to “tie in” rescuersNo technical equipment or training needed
47 Terrain Low Angle of 15 to 40 degrees Incline or environment makes carry difficultTag line or anchored system needed to stabilize the litterRescuers not required to “tie in” to the litterRisk of fall injuries are increased
48 Terrain Steep Angle of 40 to 65 degrees Haul system required to move patientFailure may have catastrophic result for rescuers and patientLoad is shared by rescuers and patientRequires rescuers to “tie in” to litters
49 Terrain High or Vertical Angle of 65 to 90 degrees Attendant required, tied in to the litterRope system for raising and lowering requiredAttendant suspended on separate line for the litter bridleFailure of system would cause serious injury or death.
50 Mechanical AdvantageHaul systems are labeled by mechanical advantage, i.e. 3:1, 4:1, etc.Each turn in a haul systems yields one unit of mechanical advantage using pulleysIn a 3:1 system, for every unit of input force, the system will yield three units of output force
51 Mechanical AdvantageConversely in a 3:1 system, for every three feet of rope pulled through the system, the load will travel one footSimple haul systems should never exceed 5:1 mechanical advantage
52 Haul Systems UsesHaul systems have many uses on various emergency scenes such as:Auto rescueMachinery RescueTrenchConfined SpaceWater rescueStructural collapseTrain rescue
53 Components of a Haul System The following is a list of the most basic haul system componentsCarabinersPulleysPrusiks or CamsAnchor pointRescue ropeA load
54 Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig” Student Activity #2Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig”
55 Hauling VictimsOnce a system is constructed, spinal precautions must be taken to successfully move the victimThere are two methods for tying litters, SKEDS and backboards into a haul system
56 Hauling Victims Direct Tie-in Method Bridle Method Tying the rope directly to the movement apparatusBridle MethodUtilizing 1” tubular webbing and a carabiner to connect the apparatus to the system
57 Securing The PatientPatients should be secured utilizing C-spine precautionsPatients should be secured using provided safety belts and 1” tubular webbingStarting at the patients feet; webbing should be weaved in an “X” pattern to the top of the victim’s shoulders
59 Haul System SafetyEstablish a plan prior to constructing or loading rope systemsBe familiar with all equipmentKnow operating commands and principlesUnderstand mechanical advantage
60 Haul System Safety Know equipment and shock load limitations Have enough manpower on scene to properly facilitate a rescueNever use mechanical devices, such as powered vehicles, to pull rope through haul systems
61 Rope SafetyFollow all manufacturer recommendations for cleaning, storage and service lifeKeep ropes protected; away from corrosives, abrasives, open flames and cigarettesAlways have an adequate length of rope before attempting the rescue
62 Rope SafetyRope hardware should be taken out of service immediately if dropped from a height of waist levelDrops can create stress fractures in the which can lead to failureDropped equipment should be X-rayed or replaced
63 Rope Safety Remove all knives, keys and dangling jewelry Edge guards should always be employedAlways wear gloves, helmets and eye protection
64 Rope Safety Designate one rescuer as the “edge man” Haul teams should only follow commands from the “edge man”Watch for falling rocks, landslides, fraying ropes or obstructionsNever let go of the mainline until the system is set and the “edge man” gives the “SET” command
65 Verbal CommandsThe following are the commands that should be used when hauling a victimThese commands should only be given by the “edge man” or “edge officer”The only person the haul team should take orders from is the “edge man”
66 Verbal Commands Safety is set On Belay Slack Belay On STOP Off BelayBelay OffOn BelayBelay OnPrepare to HaulHaulSet