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Course Objectives Understand and use rope rescue terminology and equipment Be able to list many uses of rope and rope hardware Be able to recognize and.

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Presentation on theme: "Course Objectives Understand and use rope rescue terminology and equipment Be able to list many uses of rope and rope hardware Be able to recognize and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Course Objectives Understand and use rope rescue terminology and equipment Be able to list many uses of rope and rope hardware Be able to recognize and list all safety considerations associated with rope rescue operations Understand and use rope rescue terminology and equipment Be able to list many uses of rope and rope hardware Be able to recognize and list all safety considerations associated with rope rescue operations

3 Course Objectives Recognize and list all components of a haul system Be able to describe and calculate mechanical advantage Be able to describe proper basic maintenance and care of rope and rope equipment Recognize and list all components of a haul system Be able to describe and calculate mechanical advantage Be able to describe proper basic maintenance and care of rope and rope equipment

4 Course Objectives Be able to describe and tie basic life safety knots Perform a rescue operation utilizing a rope rescue haul system - Minimum score of 70% is required on written exam - 100% of all critical on performance checklist must be achieved for successful course completion. Be able to describe and tie basic life safety knots Perform a rescue operation utilizing a rope rescue haul system - Minimum score of 70% is required on written exam - 100% of all critical on performance checklist must be achieved for successful course completion.

5 Haul Systems Simple or compound rope systems, labeled by mechanical advantage, used to forcibly pull or haul an object over certain distance

6 Consist of  Static Kern Mantle rope  an anchor point  pulleys  carabiners  rope grabs (prusiks or cams) Must utilize at least ½ inch static kern mantle rope meeting NFPA 1983 specifications. Consist of  Static Kern Mantle rope  an anchor point  pulleys  carabiners  rope grabs (prusiks or cams) Must utilize at least ½ inch static kern mantle rope meeting NFPA 1983 specifications. Haul Systems

7 NFPA 1983 The standard for life safety rope and safe working loads. Single person working load: 300 lbs. Two person working load: 600 lbs. Rope rescue should always utilize a 15:1 safety ratio (load x 15) Two person working load: (600 x 15 = 9000 lbs) The standard for life safety rope and safe working loads. Single person working load: 300 lbs. Two person working load: 600 lbs. Rope rescue should always utilize a 15:1 safety ratio (load x 15) Two person working load: (600 x 15 = 9000 lbs)

8 Laid Rope  Made of multiple strands of naturally occurring fibers  Fibers are five to 14 ft in length  Fibers are twisted together to form a single length  Examples: hemp and manila Laid Rope  Made of multiple strands of naturally occurring fibers  Fibers are five to 14 ft in length  Fibers are twisted together to form a single length  Examples: hemp and manila Rope Construction

9 Braided Rope  Cotton fiber ropes  Constructed by braiding fibers together  Strands are braided into a single length of rope  Examples: sailing rope Braided Rope  Cotton fiber ropes  Constructed by braiding fibers together  Strands are braided into a single length of rope  Examples: sailing rope

10 Rope Construction Braided-on-braid  Cotton fiber ropes  Constructed using a hollow core, cotton construction  Braid-on-braid ropes are usually used in marine applications Braided-on-braid  Cotton fiber ropes  Constructed using a hollow core, cotton construction  Braid-on-braid ropes are usually used in marine applications

11 Rope Construction Kernmantle  The Kern, is a high strength inner core constructed of a continuous synthetic material which runs the entire length of the rope.  The Mantle, is a braided outer cover or sheath that protects the kern from cuts and abrasions.  The core of kernmantle rope makes up to 75% of the rope overall length. Kernmantle  The Kern, is a high strength inner core constructed of a continuous synthetic material which runs the entire length of the rope.  The Mantle, is a braided outer cover or sheath that protects the kern from cuts and abrasions.  The core of kernmantle rope makes up to 75% of the rope overall length.

12 Static vs. Dynamic Kernmantle is made of parallel filaments or filaments spiraled into cords  Dynamic – stretches 20% to 40% of its length when under a load.  Static – stretches only 2% to 3% its length when under a load. Kernmantle is made of parallel filaments or filaments spiraled into cords  Dynamic – stretches 20% to 40% of its length when under a load.  Static – stretches only 2% to 3% its length when under a load.

13  Utility Rope – Any rope used for applications other than life safety.  Water Rescue Rope – made of polypropylene, water rescue ropes cannot be used for rappelling.  Life Safety Rope – any rope meeting the NFPA standard 1983 for life safety applications.  Utility Rope – Any rope used for applications other than life safety.  Water Rescue Rope – made of polypropylene, water rescue ropes cannot be used for rappelling.  Life Safety Rope – any rope meeting the NFPA standard 1983 for life safety applications. Types of Rope

14 Factors Which Affect Rope bends hardware knots water extreme temp. bends hardware knots water extreme temp. tree bark concrete chemical exposure rocks tree bark concrete chemical exposure rocks  ANY ROPE THAT HAS RECEIVED A SHOCK SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE IMMEDIATELY!  ANY ROPE THAT HAS RECEIVED A SHOCK SHOULD BE TAKEN OUT OF SERVICE IMMEDIATELY!

15 Care and Maintenance Clean using mild soap and water Inspect after each use Never wash on the ground or in top loading wash machines Machine wash only in approved extractors (Daisy prior to washing in extractors) Air dry only; DO NOT DRY IN THE SUN! Clean using mild soap and water Inspect after each use Never wash on the ground or in top loading wash machines Machine wash only in approved extractors (Daisy prior to washing in extractors) Air dry only; DO NOT DRY IN THE SUN!

16 Storage Store in bags away from abrasives and chemicals Always store away from sunlight Periodically inspect for abrasion and tears Pre-packed systems should be periodically broken down and rebuilt Store in bags away from abrasives and chemicals Always store away from sunlight Periodically inspect for abrasion and tears Pre-packed systems should be periodically broken down and rebuilt

17 Webbing Two Types Tubular – rated at 4,000 lbs end to end; nylon forms a continuous tube Edge Stitched – single nylon layer stitched together; NOT FOR RESCUE! Two Types Tubular – rated at 4,000 lbs end to end; nylon forms a continuous tube Edge Stitched – single nylon layer stitched together; NOT FOR RESCUE!

18 Carabiners Five Basic Parts Spine Latch Gate Lock sleeve Hinge Pin Five Basic Parts Spine Latch Gate Lock sleeve Hinge Pin

19 Carabiners Aluminum Used in sport applications Lighter, less expensive Do not rust or wear out like steel Breaking strength up to 6,000 lbs Aluminum Used in sport applications Lighter, less expensive Do not rust or wear out like steel Breaking strength up to 6,000 lbs

20 Carabiners Steel ALWAYS used for rescue Stronger, less susceptible to abrasion More expensive Requires regular maintenance Breaking strength up to 13,000 lbs Steel ALWAYS used for rescue Stronger, less susceptible to abrasion More expensive Requires regular maintenance Breaking strength up to 13,000 lbs

21 Descent Control Devices Provide rope control utilizing varying levels of friction. NFPA 1983 requires general use DCDs to with stand a 2,400 lbs load with out damaging the rope DCDs must with stand 5,000 lbs loads without failure Provide rope control utilizing varying levels of friction. NFPA 1983 requires general use DCDs to with stand a 2,400 lbs load with out damaging the rope DCDs must with stand 5,000 lbs loads without failure

22 Rescue Figure-8 Ears prevent rope from slipping up forming a girth hitch Rescue 8s can be tied off, preventing the rope from slipping Rescue Figure-8 Ears prevent rope from slipping up forming a girth hitch Rescue 8s can be tied off, preventing the rope from slipping Descent Control Devices

23 Rappel Racks Consist of several steel or aluminum bars mounted on a U-shaped rack Bars create variable degrees of friction Rope threaded straight through a rack eliminates “turning” encountered with Figure 8s Rappel Racks Consist of several steel or aluminum bars mounted on a U-shaped rack Bars create variable degrees of friction Rope threaded straight through a rack eliminates “turning” encountered with Figure 8s Descent Control Devices

24 Figure 8 Designed only as a descent or rappelling device Only for rappels of 100 ft. or less Figure 8 Designed only as a descent or rappelling device Only for rappels of 100 ft. or less Descent Control Devices

25 Ascending Devices Used for one way movement of a rope and for climbing ropes. Examples:Cam ascenders Handled ascenders Prusiks Used for one way movement of a rope and for climbing ropes. Examples:Cam ascenders Handled ascenders Prusiks

26 Mechanical Ascenders Can be applied to any working rope Apply perpendicular pressure to the rope  Mechanical ascenders can “de- sheath” a rope with as little as 1,000 lbs of pressure Mechanical Ascenders Can be applied to any working rope Apply perpendicular pressure to the rope  Mechanical ascenders can “de- sheath” a rope with as little as 1,000 lbs of pressure Ascending Devices

27 Prusik Cords Can be used as “soft rope grabs” Handle up to 3,000 lbs Create mechanical advantage for haul systems Can be used under shocked loads with out fear of “de-sheathing” ropes Prusik Cords Can be used as “soft rope grabs” Handle up to 3,000 lbs Create mechanical advantage for haul systems Can be used under shocked loads with out fear of “de-sheathing” ropes Ascending Devices

28 Pulleys Pulleys are used for: Change in directions To reduce friction Create mechanical advantage for haul systems Pulleys are used for: Change in directions To reduce friction Create mechanical advantage for haul systems

29 Pulley Construction Sheaves Side Plates Axles Bearings Pulley Construction Sheaves Side Plates Axles Bearings Pulleys NFPA 1983 states that pulleys must withstand 5,000 lbs static without distortion and 8,000 lbs with out failure

30 Special Pulleys Some pulleys are designed to solve technical rope problems Prusik Minding Knot-passing Double or Triple Sheave Some pulleys are designed to solve technical rope problems Prusik Minding Knot-passing Double or Triple Sheave

31 Edge Protection Up to 90% of all rope failures are due to improper edge protection! Edge Protectors Reduce rope abrasion Can be made of canvas, hose or turnout coats Dynamic Protectors – help reduce friction and are used when ropes are moving across surfaces Up to 90% of all rope failures are due to improper edge protection! Edge Protectors Reduce rope abrasion Can be made of canvas, hose or turnout coats Dynamic Protectors – help reduce friction and are used when ropes are moving across surfaces

32 Harnesses Requirements are listed in NFPA 1983 Must have permanent labeling; listing harness class, date of manufacture and sizing information Requirements are listed in NFPA 1983 Must have permanent labeling; listing harness class, date of manufacture and sizing information

33 Harnesses Harness Classes Class I 1)Seat style 2)For emergency escape and one person loads 3)NOT FOR RESCUE Harness Classes Class I 1)Seat style 2)For emergency escape and one person loads 3)NOT FOR RESCUE

34 Harnesses Class II 1)Seat style approved for rescue 2)Can be used for two person loads Class II 1)Seat style approved for rescue 2)Can be used for two person loads

35 Harnesses Class III 1)Full body harnesses 2)Used when inversion is possible 3)Handles one or two person loads 4)Requires no prior knowledge on the part of the patient once in the harness Class III 1)Full body harnesses 2)Used when inversion is possible 3)Handles one or two person loads 4)Requires no prior knowledge on the part of the patient once in the harness

36 Harnesses Ladder Belts 1)Waist belts 2)May be used as positioning devices 3)For emergency self rescue only Ladder Belts 1)Waist belts 2)May be used as positioning devices 3)For emergency self rescue only

37 Knot Terms Running end Working end Standing part Bight Round Turn Running end Working end Standing part Bight Round Turn Bend Hitch Anchor Safety Whip Bend Hitch Anchor Safety Whip

38 Rescue Knots Overhand Figure 8 Figure 8 On-a-bight Figure 8 Bend Figure 8 Follow Through Overhand Figure 8 Figure 8 On-a-bight Figure 8 Bend Figure 8 Follow Through Clove Hitch Water Knot Munter Hitch Tensionless Wrap Clove Hitch Water Knot Munter Hitch Tensionless Wrap

39 Student Activity #1 Knot Tying Knot Tying

40 Anchor Points Type I – Natural Anchors Rocks Trees Type II – Manmade Anchors Vehicles Utility Poles Type I – Natural Anchors Rocks Trees Type II – Manmade Anchors Vehicles Utility Poles

41 Anchor Considerations How much is the anticipated load? Is the anchor suitable given the direction of the load? Does the anchor have sharp edges? Is the anchor rusted, broken or rotten? How will you attach to the anchor? Does the anchor have sufficient mass? How much is the anticipated load? Is the anchor suitable given the direction of the load? Does the anchor have sharp edges? Is the anchor rusted, broken or rotten? How will you attach to the anchor? Does the anchor have sufficient mass?

42 Attaching to an Anchor Use 1” tubular webbing Double webbing Approach must not exceed 120 degrees 90 degrees is optimal for field use Use 1” tubular webbing Double webbing Approach must not exceed 120 degrees 90 degrees is optimal for field use

43 Attaching to an Anchor Use a 15:1 safety ratio Anchors must be “bomb proof” Anchors should weigh the same or more than the anticipated load Trees should only be used if they have a diameter greater than 4 inches Use a 15:1 safety ratio Anchors must be “bomb proof” Anchors should weigh the same or more than the anticipated load Trees should only be used if they have a diameter greater than 4 inches All anchors should be edge protected!

44 Anchoring to Vehicles Should only be used as a last resort! Keep anchor straps away from hot surfaces Chock all wheels Shut off engine Remove keys/shut off batteries Post a “guard” Never use vehicles to haul people! Should only be used as a last resort! Keep anchor straps away from hot surfaces Chock all wheels Shut off engine Remove keys/shut off batteries Post a “guard” Never use vehicles to haul people!

45 Secondary Anchors Run mainline for primary to secondary and tie it off Should be as close to “in-line” with primaries as possible Parallel anchors may be used as a single primary anchor Run mainline for primary to secondary and tie it off Should be as close to “in-line” with primaries as possible Parallel anchors may be used as a single primary anchor

46 TerrainTerrain Flat Angles of 0 to 15 degrees Rescuers may carry litter with out falling No rope system required No need to “tie in” rescuers No technical equipment or training needed Flat Angles of 0 to 15 degrees Rescuers may carry litter with out falling No rope system required No need to “tie in” rescuers No technical equipment or training needed

47 TerrainTerrain Low Angle of 15 to 40 degrees Incline or environment makes carry difficult Tag line or anchored system needed to stabilize the litter Rescuers not required to “tie in” to the litter Risk of fall injuries are increased Low Angle of 15 to 40 degrees Incline or environment makes carry difficult Tag line or anchored system needed to stabilize the litter Rescuers not required to “tie in” to the litter Risk of fall injuries are increased

48 TerrainTerrain Steep Angle of 40 to 65 degrees Haul system required to move patient Failure may have catastrophic result for rescuers and patient Load is shared by rescuers and patient Requires rescuers to “tie in” to litters Steep Angle of 40 to 65 degrees Haul system required to move patient Failure may have catastrophic result for rescuers and patient Load is shared by rescuers and patient Requires rescuers to “tie in” to litters

49 TerrainTerrain High or Vertical Angle of 65 to 90 degrees Attendant required, tied in to the litter Rope system for raising and lowering required Attendant suspended on separate line for the litter bridle Failure of system would cause serious injury or death. High or Vertical Angle of 65 to 90 degrees Attendant required, tied in to the litter Rope system for raising and lowering required Attendant suspended on separate line for the litter bridle Failure of system would cause serious injury or death.

50 Mechanical Advantage Haul systems are labeled by mechanical advantage, i.e. 3:1, 4:1, etc. Each turn in a haul systems yields one unit of mechanical advantage using pulleys In a 3:1 system, for every unit of input force, the system will yield three units of output force Haul systems are labeled by mechanical advantage, i.e. 3:1, 4:1, etc. Each turn in a haul systems yields one unit of mechanical advantage using pulleys In a 3:1 system, for every unit of input force, the system will yield three units of output force

51 Mechanical Advantage Conversely in a 3:1 system, for every three feet of rope pulled through the system, the load will travel one foot Simple haul systems should never exceed 5:1 mechanical advantage Conversely in a 3:1 system, for every three feet of rope pulled through the system, the load will travel one foot Simple haul systems should never exceed 5:1 mechanical advantage

52 Haul Systems Uses Haul systems have many uses on various emergency scenes such as: Auto rescue Machinery Rescue Trench Confined Space Auto rescue Machinery Rescue Trench Confined Space Water rescue Structural collapse Train rescue Water rescue Structural collapse Train rescue

53 Components of a Haul System Carabiners Pulleys Prusiks or Cams Carabiners Pulleys Prusiks or Cams Anchor point Rescue rope A load Anchor point Rescue rope A load The following is a list of the most basic haul system components

54 Student Activity #2 Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig” Constructing a 3:1 “Z-Rig”

55 Hauling Victims  Once a system is constructed, spinal precautions must be taken to successfully move the victim  There are two methods for tying litters, SKEDS and backboards into a haul system  Once a system is constructed, spinal precautions must be taken to successfully move the victim  There are two methods for tying litters, SKEDS and backboards into a haul system

56 Hauling Victims Direct Tie-in Method Tying the rope directly to the movement apparatus Bridle Method Utilizing 1” tubular webbing and a carabiner to connect the apparatus to the system Direct Tie-in Method Tying the rope directly to the movement apparatus Bridle Method Utilizing 1” tubular webbing and a carabiner to connect the apparatus to the system

57 Securing The Patient Patients should be secured utilizing C- spine precautions Patients should be secured using provided safety belts and 1” tubular webbing Starting at the patients feet; webbing should be weaved in an “X” pattern to the top of the victim’s shoulders Patients should be secured utilizing C- spine precautions Patients should be secured using provided safety belts and 1” tubular webbing Starting at the patients feet; webbing should be weaved in an “X” pattern to the top of the victim’s shoulders

58 Student Activity #3 Securing a patient

59 Haul System Safety Establish a plan prior to constructing or loading rope systems Be familiar with all equipment Know operating commands and principles Understand mechanical advantage Establish a plan prior to constructing or loading rope systems Be familiar with all equipment Know operating commands and principles Understand mechanical advantage

60 Haul System Safety Know equipment and shock load limitations Have enough manpower on scene to properly facilitate a rescue Never use mechanical devices, such as powered vehicles, to pull rope through haul systems Know equipment and shock load limitations Have enough manpower on scene to properly facilitate a rescue Never use mechanical devices, such as powered vehicles, to pull rope through haul systems

61 Rope Safety Follow all manufacturer recommendations for cleaning, storage and service life Keep ropes protected; away from corrosives, abrasives, open flames and cigarettes Always have an adequate length of rope before attempting the rescue Follow all manufacturer recommendations for cleaning, storage and service life Keep ropes protected; away from corrosives, abrasives, open flames and cigarettes Always have an adequate length of rope before attempting the rescue

62 Rope Safety Rope hardware should be taken out of service immediately if dropped from a height of waist level Drops can create stress fractures in the which can lead to failure Dropped equipment should be X-rayed or replaced Rope hardware should be taken out of service immediately if dropped from a height of waist level Drops can create stress fractures in the which can lead to failure Dropped equipment should be X-rayed or replaced

63 Rope Safety Remove all knives, keys and dangling jewelry Edge guards should always be employed Always wear gloves, helmets and eye protection Remove all knives, keys and dangling jewelry Edge guards should always be employed Always wear gloves, helmets and eye protection

64 Rope Safety Designate one rescuer as the “edge man” Haul teams should only follow commands from the “edge man” Watch for falling rocks, landslides, fraying ropes or obstructions Never let go of the mainline until the system is set and the “edge man” gives the “SET” command Designate one rescuer as the “edge man” Haul teams should only follow commands from the “edge man” Watch for falling rocks, landslides, fraying ropes or obstructions Never let go of the mainline until the system is set and the “edge man” gives the “SET” command

65 Verbal Commands The following are the commands that should be used when hauling a victim These commands should only be given by the “edge man” or “edge officer” The only person the haul team should take orders from is the “edge man” The following are the commands that should be used when hauling a victim These commands should only be given by the “edge man” or “edge officer” The only person the haul team should take orders from is the “edge man”

66 Verbal Commands On Belay Belay On Prepare to Haul Haul Set On Belay Belay On Prepare to Haul Haul Set Safety is set Slack STOP Off Belay Belay Off Safety is set Slack STOP Off Belay Belay Off

67 Practical Skills


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