Presentation on theme: "Do Now What is the major function of the respiratory system? Major Organs? What is the relationship between the cardiovascular system and the respiratory."— Presentation transcript:
1Do NowWhat is the major function of the respiratory system? Major Organs?What is the relationship between the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system?
11The lungs contain the alveoli which are terminal air sacs. Gas exchange only occurs in the alveoli.Therefore all other organs of the respiratory system are conducting passageways that allow air to reach the lungs.
161. Nose Air enters through the nostrils or external nares. The nose contains two nasal cavities.Special ciliated cells in the upper reaches of the nasal cavity act as odor receptors.
17Tear glands drain into the nasal cavity. The palate separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity.Function – filter, warm and moisten the air
182. PharynxThe pharynx is a muscular passageway commonly called the throat.It is a common passageway for food and air.The pharynx in superior to the larynx and trachea.Tonsils are located in the pharynx.
193. Larynx The larynx is also known as the voicebox. Function of the larynx: sound productionThe epiglottis: a flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the larynx
20Parts of the larynx form folds called the vocal folds or the true vocal cords which: vibrate with expelled air giving us the ability to speakGlottis – opening to the larynx – epiglottis covers
214. Trachea The trachea is also known as the windpipe The trachea is lined with cilia. The cilia beat in the direction opposite of the incoming air.
22They propel mucus: loaded with dust particles and other debris, away from the lungs to the throat where it can be swallowed or spat out
23The trachea is rigid because it has C shaped cartilaginous rings Tracheotomy – when as incision is made in the trachea to allow air to pass around a blockage
255. Bronchi The trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi The bronchi laid into the lungsThe bronchi branch into a great number of smaller passageways known bronchioles
26During an asthma attack: Smooth muscle lining the bronchioles constricts and movement of air through the narrowed tubes results in the characteristic wheezing
27By the time air has reached the bronchi it is: WarmCleansed of most impuritiesWell humidified
286. Lungs The paired lungs are fairly large organs They occupy almost the entire thoracic cavityThe primary bronchi go into the lungs where they subdivide into smaller and smaller branches (secondary and tertiary bronchi). They finally end in the smallest of the conducting passageways the bronchioles.
31The bronchioles end in alveoli or air sacs. The alveoli make up the respiratory zoneThe lungs are cone-shaped organs. The right lung has three lobes and the left lung has 2 lobes. The left lung has 2 since the heart is on that side and takes up some of the space.
33Each alveolar sac is made up of simple squamous epithelium surrounded by blood capillaries. Gas exchange occurs in the capillaries.This layer of tissue and the capillary net create the respiratory membrane (air/blood barrier). Air flows by one side and blood flows by on the other side. Gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion.
35There are approximately 300 million (alveoli) There are approximately 300 million (alveoli). Their surface area is at least 40X that of the skin.The lungs are mostly air spaces so they are light and usually float in water – soft and spongyMacrophages (WBC) wander in and out of the alveoli picking up bacteria, carbon particles and other debris.
36Mechanisms of Breathing Respiration: the complete process of supplying oxygen to body cells for aerobic cellular respiration and the reverse process of ridding the body of oxygen
43Breathing is a completely mechanical process that depends on volume changes occurring in the thoracic cavityVolume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize the pressure
44VentilationThe manner in which air enters and exits the lungs
45To understand ventilation it is necessary to: There is a continuous column of air from the pharynx to the alveoli of the lungsThe lungs lie within the sealed-off thoracic cavity. The rib cage forms the top and sides. The diaphragm forms the floor of the thoracic cavity.
463. The lungs are enclosed by 2 serous membranes called pleural membranes. One layer is attached to the rib cage and diaphragm and the other layer is attached to the lungs. The two layers are very close and are only separated by a little fluid. The pressure in the pleural space is lower than atmospheric pressure.
47Inspiration is ActiveInspiration is triggered by the respiratory center. Impulses are sent by way of the nerves to the diaphragm and the muscles of the rib cage known as intercoastals.
48When relaxed the diaphragm is domed shaped but when it contracts it lowers.
49Nerves also stimulate the intercostal muscles to contract causing the rib cage to move upward and outward
50When the diaphragm contracts and the rib cage moves up and out, the thoracic cavity increases in size. This causes the lungs to expand and air to move in from the nose or mouth.
51Expiration is usually passive When the nerves stop sending signals, the diaphragm relaxes and resumes its dome shape.The abdominal organs press up against the diaphragm and the rib cage moves down and inwardThis causes the elastic lungs to recoil and air to be pushed out.
52External and Internal Respiration The principles of diffusion alone govern whether oxygen or carbon dioxide enters or leaves the blood
53External Respiration cleanses the blood External respiration refers to the exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries
54External Respiration occurs in the lungs. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood in the lungs.Oxygen diffuses into the blood in the lungs.
55Internal respiration cleanses tissue fluid Internal respiration occurs in the body cellsOxygen diffuses out of the blood and into the tissues.Carbon dioxide diffuses out the tissues and into the blood
64Acute Caused by: secondary bacteria infection Results in: heavy mucous discharge with much coughingTreatment: antibiotics
65ChronicCaused by: smoking – second hand smoke – irritation to the lining of the bronchiResults in: frequent coughing, increased risk of respiratory infectionsTreatment - none
66Pneumonia Caused by: bacteria or virus infection of the lungs Results in: lobes fill with fluid become non-functionalTreatment - antibiotics
67Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by: Tubercle bacillus – bacteriaResults in: cysts in the lungs, alveoli burst and replace by inelastic connective tissueTreatment: antibiotics – some strains are now resistant
68EmphysemaCaused by: destruction of lung tissue – damage and collapse of lung tissueResults in: ballooning or inflation of the lungs due to trapped air, breathless cough, surface for gas exchange decreases, not enough oxygen to hear and bodyTreatment: none