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The Human Body: Respiratory System

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1 The Human Body: Respiratory System
Textbook Chapter 34 Review Book Topic 1

2 Function Sustain cellular respiration by supplying oxygen to body cells and removing carbon dioxide waste from cells Two processes: Breathing Respiration

3 Breathing Respiration
Mechanical movement of air into and out of the lungs Respiration External respiration ~ exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood in the lungs Internal respiration ~ exchange of gases between the blood and the body’s cells

4 Structure Made up of: Nasal passages Pharynx Larynx Epiglottis Trachea
Lungs Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Diaphragm

5 Path of Air Overall Air travels from the outside environment to the lungs where it passes through the alveoli

6 Step by Step Air enters your mouth or nose
Hairs in nose filter out dust and other large particles in the air Cilia line nasal passages/tubes to trap foreign particles and prevent them from entering the lungs

7 Mucus membranes beneath the cilia warm and moisten the air
Filtered air passes through upper throat (pharynx)

8 Epiglottis is a flap of tissue which covers the opening to the larynx to prevent food from entering the lungs Allows air to pass from larynx to trachea (windpipe) which branches into two bronchi, leading to the lungs

9 Lungs are the largest organ of the respiratory system
Gas exchange occurs here

10 Each bronchi branches into smaller bronchioles which continue to decrease in size ending each in an individual air sac known as a alveolus Alveoli are thin walled (1 cell thick) to allow for gas exchange Surrounded by very thin capillaries


12 Gas Exchange In alveoli, oxygen diffuses across the moist, thin walls into capillaries and then into red blood cells

13 Oxygen is transported by the blood to be released into body cells during internal respiration
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the capillaries, into the alveoli and into the lungs to be returned to the atmosphere through external respiration


15 Process of Breathing Brain directs the rate of breathing by responding to internal stimuli that indicate how much oxygen the body needs When carbon dioxide concentration is high, breathing rate increases to increase oxygen concentrations

16 Inhalation ~ act of taking air into the lungs
Diaphragm contracts causing the chest cavity to expand as the diaphragm moves down This allows air to move into the lungs

17 Exhalation Diaphragm relaxes and returns to normal resting position, reducing the size of the chest cavity Air naturally flows out from greater pressure of lungs


19 Disorders Lung Disorder Description Asthma
Respiratory pathways become irritated and bronchioles constrict Bronchitis Respiratory pathways become infected, resulting in coughing and production of mucus Emphysema Alveoli break down, resulting in reduced surface area for gas exchange




23 Pneumonia Infection of the lungs that causes alveoli to collect mucus material Pulmonary tuberculosis A specific type of bacteria infection in the lungs, resulting in less elasticity of blood capillaries surround alveoli, decreases the effectiveness of gas exchange Lung Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissue can leas to persistent cough, shortness of breath, bronchitis or pneumonia, and can lead to death




27 Respiratory System BrainPop

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