2In the BeginningMost of China’s rulers were from dynasties, or a series of rulers from the same family.China’s ancient values of social order, harmony, and respect for authority were put aside toward the end of the Zhou Dynasty.Confucius seeks to organize Chinese society around five basic relationships.
3The Teachings of Confucius Confucius seeks to organize Chinese society around five basic relationships.1. subject to ruler2. husband to wife3. older brother to younger brother4. father to son5. friend to friendConfucian ideas lay the groundwork for a civil service staffed by gentlemen scholars.He stressed that children should practice filial piety.He was not only wise, but he wanted to show leaders how to govern effectively.
4Famous QuotesBy nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to be wide apart.Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it.The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions.I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's ignorance.
5Daoism Daoists seek accord with nature. Daoism was founded by Laozi. The “Dao” or way, is universal force that guides all things.He states that nothing in nature strives for fame, or even wisdom.Of all the creatures in nature, humans fail to follow the Dao.Daoists made contributions to the sciences of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine.
6Legalism Legalists urge strong, harsh rule and strict censorship. They believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order.They taught a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well.Ideas and actions should be controlled.Rulers should destroy things that encourage the criticism of government.“ Anyone caught outside his own village without a travel permit should have his ears or nose chopped off.”
7Yin & YangOrdinary Chinese consult fold wisdom in books like the I Ching (Book of Changes) and in ideas like yin and yang.Yin and Yang represent the natural rhythms of life.Yang represents the masculine in the universe, and Yin represents the feminine.
8Daoism Confucianism B. C. A. E. D. F. G. Legalism A highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order. _____Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature. ________Respect for parents and elders is important to a well-ordered society. _______Chinese ethical system. _______This ethical system did not use harshness. _______Taught that a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties. _______Stressed the importance of government and a well-ordered society. _______Ethical system that seems the most moderate and balanced. _______
9Shi HuangdiShi Huangdi, the first Qin emperor, uses military power to unite China and crush dissent.He creates a road network and standardizes currency, writing weights and measures, and laws.He has the Great Wall built to fend off invaders from the north.The Chinese overthrow the Qin Dynasty almost immediately after Shi Huangdi’s death.
11How is the Great Wall of China an example of Shi’ Huangdi’s power?
12A terra-cotta warrior from the tomb A terra-cotta warrior from the tomb. Each soldier’s body was made from a mold but the head was individualized. The soldiers were also painted in vivid colors.What is your impression of these warriors?
13Shi Huangdi rules as a Legalist In order to destroy the power of his rivals, Shi Huangdi introduced a policy called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches.”He commanded all noble families to live in the capital under his gaze.He and his prime minister, Li Su, murdered hundreds of Confucian scholars.They burned any books they deemed useless.He was hated by the poor because they were forced to work on the Great Wall.
14The Han Dynasty Ruled China for more than 400 years. Xiang Yu and Liu Bang emerged as powerful leaders. Yu gave his warlords, including Bang, territories in order to acknowledge him as feudal lord.Liu Bang turned against Xiang Yu in their final battle in 202, Lui Bang declared himself emperor.Bang followed Shi Huangdi policy of centralized government. Unlike Huangdi, Bang departed from legalism, lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments.People appreciated the peace and stability the Han dynasty brought.Liu Bang dies n 195 B.C.
15Timeline of the Han Dynasty 195: Lui Bang dies, his wife Empress Lü rules. She outlives her son and has powerful friends at court to help her gain power.180: Empress Lü dies, people remain loyal to Lui Bang and executes the empress’s relatives.141-87: Lui Bang’s Grandson Wudi rules. He held the throne longer than any other Han ruler. Referred to as the Martial Emperor because he expanded his empire through war.
16Rulers- Strengthening Government Liu Bang: relied on Confucius policy rather than the harsh legalist ideals of Qin dynastyEmperor Wudi: Most important emperorRelied on ConfucianismImproved canals and roadsImposed a government monopoly (complete control of a product or business) on iron and salt
17Silk Road Trade Route linking China with the Middle East Brought a lot of wonderful goods into China and helped China expand.
18Han SocietyScholar-Officials: well-educated philosophers (Confucianism) to run the bureaucracyA scholar official was expected to match the Confucian ideal of a gentle man. He would be courteous and dignified and possess a thorough knowledge of history, music, poetry, and Confucian teachings.Known for the development of paper
193 Dynasties The Zhou Dynasty Zhou rulers believed in the idea of the Mandate of Heaven. During this rule there was civil unrest which caused the dynasty to fall. Due to internal fighting and attacks by outsiders, the Zhou’s power fell to the Qin dynasty.Qin DynastyThe Qin dynasty came to power ending the trouble of the warring states. Used ideas of Legalism to unite China. Under the Qin dynasty, the Great Wall was erected.Han DynastyHan dynasty reestablished the civil service system. During this period trade prospered and China expanded its borders to its largest size in the Classical period. The Hans dynasty was one of the longest in Chinese History.