Memory Can be divided into three separate storage areas: a sensory store, a short-term store, and a long-term store
Sensory Store The gateway between perception and memory. Information in the sensory store is referred to as iconic if it is visual, and echoic if it is auditory. The iconic store only lasts for a few tenths of a second, while the echoic store lasts for three or four seconds. The items are constantly being replaced
Short-Term Store Holds information from a few seconds up to a minute. Information is primarily acoustically coded, despite the nature of the original source Items in short term are maintained by rehearsal- two types: maintenance (simple repetition to keep an item in short term until it can be used) and elaborative ( involves organization and understanding of the information that has been encoded in order to transfer the information to long term).
Items that are forgotten exit the short-term store either by decay or by interference (they are displaced by new information) Short term memory tends to store items from a list sequentially leads to our tendency to remember the first few and last few items in a list than the ones in the middle= primary and recency. The overall effect is called the serial position effect. Grouping items of information into units is called chunking
Long-Term Store Capable for permanent retention for the duration of our lives. Certain types of information in this store can be visually or acoustically encoded. Episodic memory= memory for events that we ourselves have experienced. Semantic= comprises facts, figures, and general world knowledge. Procedural= consisting of skills and habits. Memories are stored in the cerebellum.
Recalling items in long-term memory is subject to the encoding specificity principle. Information is more likely to be recalled if the attempt to retrieve it occurs in a situation similar to the situation in which is was encoded Working memory is sometimes viewed as encompassing that part of long-term memory that is currently in use. Used to process new information and its relationship to relevant information in the long-term store.
Language Language is arbitrary- words rarely sound like the ideas that they convey Language has a structure that is additive in a certain sense Language has multiplicity of structure, meaning that is can be analyzed in a number of different ways Language is productive, meaning that there are nearly endless meaningful combinations of words. Language is dynamic, meaning that it is constantly changing and evolving
Noam Chomsky Postulated a system for the organization of language based on the concept of what he referred to as transformational grammar, which differentiates between the surface structure of language and the deep structure of language.
Concepts A concept is a way of grouping the world around us. Typicality is the degree to which an object fits the average. This typical picture that we envision is referred to as a prototype
Thinking Can be viewed in two basic forms: autistic thinking and directed thinking Autistic- applies to though processes such as daydreaming or fantasizing. Directed- includes reasoning, drawing inferences, and problem solving. Reason, the drawing of conclusions from evidence, can be divided into deductive (drawing logical conclusions from general statements) and inductive (drawing general inferences from specific observations).
Problem Solving Involves the removal of one or more impediments to the finding of a solution in a situation. If many correct answers are possible, we use a process known as divergent thinking. If the problem can be solved only by one answer, convergent thinking must be used.- requires narrowing of the many choices available.
Creativity Defined as the process of producing something novel, yet worthwhile.