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Cognition Princeton Review Crack-a-lackin Tasha Wright.

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1 Cognition Princeton Review Crack-a-lackin Tasha Wright

2 Sensory Memory =gateway between perception and memory  very limited Iconic=visual (1/10ths of a second) Echoic=auditory (3-4 seconds)

3 Sensory Memory Dos Based on how you perceive things Ex. Jump rope: at many points at once =visual persistence

4 George Sperling and partial report G Z E P R K O D B T X F Paired with different pitched sounds Better with lower pitch Short-term visual (iconic) memory

5 Short-Term Memory Few seconds to about a minute Acoustically coded Seven parts (+/- 2) Ex. Telephone numbers Chunking=grouping items

6 Rehearsal Maintenance=simple repetition for the short term Elaborative=organization and understanding for long-term use Can decay by interference

7 Remembering Lists: Primacy=remembering the first items Recency=remembering the last items (fades in about a day)  serial position effect

8 Long-Term Memory Semantically encoded memories=encoded in the form of word meanings  can be semantically plus visually or acoustically encoded Ex. Song lyrics

9 Episodic memory=events that we ourselves have experienced Semantic memory=fact based memory Procedural memory=skills and habits

10 Types of LTM State-dependent memory: more likely to be recalled if the attempt to retrieve it occurs in a situation similar to the situation in which is was encoded Flashbulb memories: very deep, vivid memory in the form of a visual image associated with a particular emotionally arousing event Working memory: the part of LTM that is currently in use

11 Memory Changing Reconstruction=fitting events together that seem likely  can be caused by source amnesia Framing=repeated suggestions and misleading questions that create false memories  problems in trials

12 Language Arbitrary  words don’t sound like the ideas they convey Additive structure  words into phrases, phrases to sentences, sentences to paragraphs, etc. Multiplicity of structure  can be analyzed in many ways Production  nearly endless combination of words Dynamic  constantly changing and evolving

13 Phonemes=smaller units of speech sounds Morphemes=combination of phonemes Grammar=set of rules of language Syntax=organizing morphemes into meaningful language Semantics=word choice

14 Acquiring Language (Infants) Holophrases=single terms that are applied to a broad category of things Ex. All women are “mama”  this is overextension (2 year olds) Telegraphic speech=lack many parts of speech Ex. “mommy food” (3 years old) Know over 1,000 words  overgeneralization errors Ex. I goed to store

15 Noam Chomsky and Transformational grammar Surface structure of language v. deep structure of language Propose innate language acquisition device  used to explain why all cultures languages and learning is so similar

16 B.F. Skinner Behaviorist Said it was operant conditioning  learning and reinforcement

17 Concept =a way of grouping or classifying the world around us Typicality=the degree to which an object fits the average Prototype=typical picture that we envision

18 Superordinate concept=very broad; encompasses a large group of items Ex. Food Subordinate concept=smaller and more specific Ex. Bread

19 Cognition=thinking Reasoning=drawing of conclusions from evidence Deductive reasoning=drawing logical conclusions from general statements Inductive reasoning=the process of drawing general inferences from specific observations

20 Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity=the process of producing something novel yet worthwhile Divergent thinking  if many correct answers are possible Ex. Brainstorming Convergent  problem can only be solved by one answer

21 Heuristics=intuitive rules of thumb Algorithms=systematic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer to a problem Insight=sudden understanding Ex. Wolfgang Kohler and chimps. Bananas outside cage, 2 sticks inside Mental set=fixed frame of mind Functional fixedness=tendency to assume that a given item is only useful for the task for which it was designed

22 Confirmation bias=looking only for information to support your view Hindsight bias=after the fact, saying you knew what the outcome would be Framing=the way a question is phrased

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