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Memory. Interesting Video  Color Changing Card Trick Color Changing Card Trick.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory. Interesting Video  Color Changing Card Trick Color Changing Card Trick."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory

2 Interesting Video  Color Changing Card Trick Color Changing Card Trick

3 Information Processing  Encoding: The first stage of information processing. Receiving information through the senses EX: Typing into a computer  Storage: the second stage of IP. Storing and sorting information in the brain EX: Pressing the SAVE button  Retrieval: the final stage of IP. Acting on the basis of information EX: Finding and opening up your document

4 Encoding You are constantly bombarded with information from all your senses. You must narrow this down!  Selective Attention: focusing one’s awareness on a limited segment of the total amount of sensory input EX: Color changing card trick  Feature Extraction: Identification and analysis of specific elements EX: What parts of a conversation you remember Selective Attention Test

5 Storage There are 3 stages of memory storage:  Sensory Storage: very brief (0-1 sec) memory storage immediately following initial reception of a stimulus  Echoic: sensory memory for sound (about 1 sec)  Iconic: sensory memory for vision (fraction of a sec)

6 Storage  Short-Term Memory: memory that is limited in capacity to about 7 items and in duration by the subject’s active rehearsal  Rehearsal: repeating items in short-term memory over and over to move it to long-term EX: Repeating vocab words  Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often occurs automatically EX: Combining numbers in a phone number or social security number

7 Chunking 10 Seconds to remember all the numbers: 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1

8 Chunking 10 Seconds to remember all the numbers: 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941

9 Storage  Long-Term Memory: information storage that has unlimited capacity and often may last indefinitely  With rehearsal and practice, we can store things in long-term memory  The more we put into our long-term memory, the easier it gets to put things there!!! (Like a muscle)  Implicit: procedural and conditioned memories  Writing, riding a bike, fear responses  Explicit: declarative, semantic memories  The pledge, dates, famous people, sports stats

10 Retrieving Information Memories need to be “retrieved.” But there are a few different methods of doing it:  Recognition: type of memory retrieval in which a person is required to identify an object, idea, or situation as one he or she has or has not experienced before

11 Retrieving Information  Recall: type of memory retrieval in which a person reconstructs previously learned material  Relearning: it is easier to learn things a second time and requires less rehearsal  Forgetting: when interference makes it difficult to retrieve long-term memories. WE NEVER LOSE LONG-TERM MEMORIES!!!

12 Memory Video

13 Thinking Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory in order to create new information. 4 Units of Thought:

14 Thinking 1. Image: a mental representation of specific events or objects  Most simple unit  Highlights of the original

15 Thinking 2. Symbol: an abstract unit of thought that represents an object, event, or quality  Most common are words  Stands for something other than itself

16 Thinking 3. Concept: A label for a class of objects or events that share common attributes  Enables us to chunk large amounts of information  Animal, liquid, music

17 Thinking 4. Rule: A statement of the relationship between concepts  EX: cannot be in two places at once  Most complex unit of thought

18 Lateral Thinking Questions

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