# Chapter Five The Cognitive Approach II: Memory, Imagery, and Problem Solving.

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Chapter Five The Cognitive Approach II: Memory, Imagery, and Problem Solving

2 Memory Memory is the capacity to retain information over time. Memory is the capacity to retain information over time. Memory allows us to learn from previous experiences. Memory allows us to learn from previous experiences. Memory systems can be characterized by duration, capacity, and coding. Memory systems can be characterized by duration, capacity, and coding.

3 Sensory memory Information from the different sensory modalities is stored in separate sensory memories. Information from the different sensory modalities is stored in separate sensory memories. Iconic memory is a visual sensory store with a short duration of less than one second. Iconic memory is a visual sensory store with a short duration of less than one second. Echoic memory is an auditory sensory store with a duration several seconds long. Echoic memory is an auditory sensory store with a duration several seconds long.

4 Sensory memory Sperling (1960) presented letter arrays. Sperling (1960) presented letter arrays. R G C P L X N F S B J Q

5 Sensory memory In the whole report condition, participants attempted to recall the entire array but could only remember several letters. In the whole report condition, participants attempted to recall the entire array but could only remember several letters. In the partial-report condition, they were cued after the display to report the letters in one row only. They could remember all the letters. In the partial-report condition, they were cued after the display to report the letters in one row only. They could remember all the letters. This shows iconic memory has a high capacity, capable of storing most of the information seen in the visual field. This shows iconic memory has a high capacity, capable of storing most of the information seen in the visual field. How does it show this, if subjects could only report one row of letters? How does it show this, if subjects could only report one row of letters?

6 Sometimes also called short-term memory. Sometimes also called short-term memory. Has a limited capacity. Can only hold a small number of items. Has a limited capacity. Can only hold a small number of items. Capacity can be increased by grouping items into meaningful wholes called chunks. Limit is about 7±2 chunks. Capacity can be increased by grouping items into meaningful wholes called chunks. Limit is about 7±2 chunks. Working memory

7 Effects of Chunking N F L C B S I R A M T V

8 Has a limited duration. Information can decay in seconds. Has a limited duration. Information can decay in seconds. Duration can be increased by repeating items, a process called rehearsal. Duration can be increased by repeating items, a process called rehearsal. Working memory

9 Working memory duration Peterson and Peterson (1959). (Permits rehearsal) (Prevents rehearsal)

10 Coding can be acoustic, visual, or semantic. Coding can be acoustic, visual, or semantic. Visually presented letters Visually presented letters Participants confuse “A” & “K”; “E” & “P” Participants confuse “A” & “K”; “E” & “P” Mental rotation time to compare patterns. Mental rotation time to compare patterns. More proactive interference of “apple” with “orange” than with “tulip”. More proactive interference of “apple” with “orange” than with “tulip”. Working memory

11 Long-term memory Consists of several distinct subtypes. Consists of several distinct subtypes. Implicit or procedural memory holds knowledge for skills such as riding a Implicit or procedural memory holds knowledge for skills such as riding a bicycle. It is demonstrated by doing and occurs without conscious recall. Explicit or declarative memory holds memory for facts and events. It is demonstrated by saying and occurs with conscious recall.

12 Declarative memory Declarative long-term memory consists of two types. Declarative long-term memory consists of two types. Semantic memory contains factual knowledge and can be organized hierarchically. Example: George Washington was the first president of the United States. Semantic memory contains factual knowledge and can be organized hierarchically. Example: George Washington was the first president of the United States. Episodic memory contains personally experienced events and is organized temporally or spatially. Example: What you did on your last birthday. Episodic memory contains personally experienced events and is organized temporally or spatially. Example: What you did on your last birthday.

13 Semantic memory duration Bahrick (1984).

14 The modal memory model Formulated by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971). Shows how information is transferred between the major memory types.

15 The ACT* memory model Anderson (1983, 1990)

16 The working memory model From Baddeley (1986, 1992). Shows interactions between components of working memory.

17 Visual imagery A visual image is a mental representation of an object or scene that preserves metric spatial information. A visual image is a mental representation of an object or scene that preserves metric spatial information. Images are constructed internally from information in memory. Images are constructed internally from information in memory. Imagery and perception utilize the same neural machinery. Imagery and perception utilize the same neural machinery. Images interfere with perception [Kosslyn] Images interfere with perception [Kosslyn]

18 The Kosslyn-Schwartz theory of visual imagery A surface representation of an image is quasi-pictorial and occurs in a spatial medium. A surface representation of an image is quasi-pictorial and occurs in a spatial medium. Think of an elephant. Think of an elephant. A deep representation consists of the information in long-term memory used to generate the surface representation. A deep representation consists of the information in long-term memory used to generate the surface representation.

19 Image processes Image generation refers to the formation or construction of an image. Examples: part placement and resizing. Image generation refers to the formation or construction of an image. Examples: part placement and resizing. Image inspection is reading off the image to extract information. Examples: scanning, zooming, and panning. Image inspection is reading off the image to extract information. Examples: scanning, zooming, and panning. How many windows are on the front of your building? How many windows are on the front of your building? Image transformation is an operation that is applied to an image. Examples: rotation about different axes. Image transformation is an operation that is applied to an image. Examples: rotation about different axes.

20 Problem solving Transforming a given situation into a desired situation or goal. Transforming a given situation into a desired situation or goal. Characteristics of problem solving: Characteristics of problem solving: 1.Goal directedness 2.Sequence of operations 3.Cognitive operations 4.Subgoal decomposition

21 The problem space Represents possible steps toward solving the problem. Represents possible steps toward solving the problem. States are nodes. Operators that transform a state produce paths to other states. States are nodes. Operators that transform a state produce paths to other states.

22 The Tower of Hanoi Get all the discs onto peg 3 in the same order. Get all the discs onto peg 3 in the same order. Move only one disc at a time. Move only one disc at a time. Can only place a smaller disc on top of a larger one. Can only place a smaller disc on top of a larger one.

23 TofH As State Space ∂ ∂∂ ∂∂

24 TofH As Problem Reduction Space ∂ ∂∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂

25 TofH As Problem Reduction Space ∂ ∂∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂

26 A block-world problem

27 The SOAR model An example of a cognitive architecture used to solve problems (Newell, 1991). An example of a cognitive architecture used to solve problems (Newell, 1991). Knowledge in LTM selects operators and guides search through the problem space. Knowledge in LTM selects operators and guides search through the problem space. Goes through a decision cycle based on acquiring evidence and then executing a decision. Goes through a decision cycle based on acquiring evidence and then executing a decision. Operators can be selected based on preferences. Operators can be selected based on preferences. Can create novel subgoals when unable to proceed further. Can create novel subgoals when unable to proceed further.

28 How SOAR might solve a block- world problem

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