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Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory Module 11 Types of Memory.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory Module 11 Types of Memory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory Module 11 Types of Memory

2 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory INTRODUCTION Definitions –Memory ability to retain information over time through three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving –Encoding refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into our memories

3 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory INTRODUCTION Definitions –Storing process of placing encoded information into relatively permanent mental storage for later recall –Retrieving process of getting or recalling information that has been placed into short-term or long-term storage

4 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory THREE TYPES OF MEMORY Sensory memory –refers to an initial process that receives and holds environmental information in its raw form for a brief period of time, from and instant to several seconds Short-term memory –also called working-memory, refers to another process that can hold only a limited amount of information, an average of seven items - 2 to 30 seconds Long-term memory –refers to the process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time

5 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory THREE TYPES OF MEMORY (CONT.) Memory processes –sensory memory –do not pay attention, information is forgotten –pay attention, information is automatically transferred into short-term memory –short-term memory –do not pay attention –information is not encoded and is forgotten –long-term memory –encoded information will remain on a relatively permanent basis

6 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory p240 THREE TYPES MEMORY

7 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory SENSORY MEMORY: RECORDING Iconic memory –form of sensory memory that automatically holds visual information for about a quarter of a second or more; as soon as you shift your attention, the information disappears Echoic memory –form of sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 to 2 seconds

8 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory SENSORY MEMORY: RECORDING (CONT.) Functions of sensory memory –prevents being overwhelmed –gives decision time –provides stability, playback, and recognition

9 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory SHORT TERM MEMORY: WORKING Definition –refers to a process that can hold a limited amount of information-an average of seven items- for a limited period of time –2 to 30 seconds Two features –limited duration –maintenance rehearsal –refers to the practice of intentionally repeating or rehearsing information so that it remains longer in short-term memory

10 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory SHORT TERM MEMORY: WORKING (CONT.) Two features –limited capacity Interference –results when new information enters short-term memory and overwrites or pushes out information that is already there Chunking –combining separate items of information into a larger unit, or chunk, and then remembering chunks of information rather than individual items

11 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory SHORT TERM MEMORY: WORKING (CONT.) Functions of short-tem memory –Attending selectively attend to information that is relevant and disregard everything else –Rehearsing allows you to hold information for a short period of time until you decide what to do with it –Storing helps to store or encode information in long- term memory

12 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING Putting information into long-term memory –Long-term memory refers to the process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time with the potential of retrieving, or remembering, such information in the future –Encoding process of transferring information from short- term to long-term memory by paying attention to it, repeating or rehearsing it, or forming new associations –Retrieving process of selecting information from long-term memory and transferring it back into short-term memory

13 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING (CONT.) Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative –Declarative memory involves memories for facts or events, such as scenes, stories, words, conversations, faces, or daily events –Semantic memory type of declarative memory and that involves knowledge of facts, concepts, words, definitions, and language rules

14 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING (CONT.) Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative –Episodic memory type of declarative memory and that involves knowledge of specific events, personal experiences (episodes), or activities, such as naming or describing favorite restaurants, or hobbies

15 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory LONG-TERM MEMORY: STORING (CONT.) Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative –Procedural or nondeclarative memory involves memories for motor skills (playing tennis), some cognitive behaviors learned through classical conditioning

16 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory ENCODING: TRANSFERING Two kinds of encoding –Automatic encoding transfer of information from short-term into long-term memory without any effort and usually without any awareness personal events interesting facts skills and habits

17 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory ENCODING: TRANSFERING (CONT.) Two kinds of encoding –Effortful encoding involves the transfer of information from short- term into long-term memory either by working hard to repeat or rehearse the information or, especially, by making associations between new and old information

18 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory ENCODING: TRANSFERING (CONT.) Rehearsing and encoding –Maintenance rehearsal refers to simply repeating or rehearsing the information rather than forming any new associations –Elaborative rehearsal involves using effort to actively make meaningful associations between new information that you wish to remember and old or familiar information that is already stored in long-term memory

19 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory ENCODING: TRANSFERING (CONT.) Levels of processing –theory says that remembering depends on how information is encoded –shallow processing: poor recall –deeper and deepest processing: encode by making new association

20 Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 11: Types of Memory REPRESSED MEMORIES Definition of repressed memory –the process by which the mind pushes a memory of some threatening or traumatic event deep into the unconscious mind Implanting false memories –studies on implanting false memories simply show that a false suggestion can grow into a vivid, detailed, and believable personal memory


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