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Memory and Thought.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory and Thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory and Thought

2 3 TYPES OF MEMORY: Sensory Memory Short – Term Memory
Long – Term Memory

3 And 3 PROCESSES of memory…
Encoding: transforming info so the NS can process & store it We use acoustic codes when we try to remember something by repeating it out loud We use visual codes when we try to keep a mental picture Semantic codes – trying to remember by trying to make sense of something Encoding Storage Retrieval


5 Storage The process of maintaining info in LTM over a period of time How well this works depends on how much effort was put into encoding it

6 Bringing info from LTM storage into working memory (STM)
Retrieval Bringing info from LTM storage into working memory (STM) How easily this happens depends on how efficiently it was encoded, and also on how many sense were used while encoding TIP: You can think of the three stages of memory processing in the following way: encoding is like listening to songs, consolidation is like recording those songs (or burning a CD), and retrieval is like playing back the songs

7 Sensory Memory Sight and hearing hold an input for fraction of a second Psychologists refer to 2 types of SM: auditory sensory memory = echoic memory, and Visual sensory memory = iconic memory Sensory mem serves 3 functions: Prevents being overwhelmed Give you some decision time allows for continuity and stability


9 SHORT TERM MEMORY Definition & duration Capacity & chunking
Things you have in conscious mind at any one moment To retain longer than a few seconds, we must use techniques like maintenance rehearsal (repeating the info to self) Lasts about 20 seconds without rehearsal Can hold ~ 7 unrelated items Each item can consist of a collection of other items, but if they are packaged into one “chunk” they count as 1 Eg. DDT, COMSAT, phone #s, or to remember a list of things—figs, lettuce, oranges, apples, and tomatoes—make a word out of the first letters (e.g., "FLOAT") - acronyms

10 STM cont’d The PRIMACY-RECENCY effect:
Recalling info at the beginning or end is easier How does this relate to “working memory?” They are similar, but working memory also includes info stored in long term, brought into consciousness for processing working memory is necessary for the control of attention (Klingberg, 2008).


Declarative: (we call this up from memory as we need it) Episodic – memory of our own lives Semantic – knowledge of language, words, meanings Procedural – involves skills acquired thru life eg. Driving, tying shoes, typing, texting Also things like fear of bugs, habits, and things learned through classical conditioning



15 MEMORY AND THE BRAIN – What physiologically happens when we learn?
Change in the neuronal structure of nerves? Molecular or chemical changes in brain? Evidence shows both are correct Complex chemical processes happen before new connections are formed – protein synthesis, high glucose, potassium & calcium

16 A few final points… Amygdala is for emotional associations
Thalamus is for processing sensory information, crucial to creating memories Hippocampus is for transferring words, facts, events from STM into LTM

17 Interesting idea…

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