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World War II The war that changed the world. The Road to World War II ► Treaty of Versailles ended World War I ► It was not based on Wilson’s Fourteen.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II The war that changed the world. The Road to World War II ► Treaty of Versailles ended World War I ► It was not based on Wilson’s Fourteen."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II The war that changed the world

2 The Road to World War II ► Treaty of Versailles ended World War I ► It was not based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points and enraged some countries  Germany (War Guilt Clause and Reparations)  Italy (Didn’t get the land they wanted)  Japan (Didn’t get all of the land they wanted)  Soviet Union (Left out of the talks)

3 Dictators Gain Power Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler The world wide Depression of the 1930s made it easier for dictators to gain control in many European Countries. There was an increase in militarism during this time period.

4 Acts of Aggression ► Japan Invades Manchuria and Chinese Cities  League of Nations threatens but takes NO action  Japan withdraws from the League of Nations

5 Italy Invades Africa ► Italy invades Ethiopia ► Ethiopian King appeals to League of Nations ► League of Nations will not sell war supplies or goods to Italy

6 German Aggression Begins ► Nazi Party Comes to power ► Anti - Semitic feelings spread ► Re armament ► Hitler/Stalin sign Non- Aggression Pact ► Hitler comes to power and follows “Mein Kampf” - his goals for Germany

7 German Aggression ► Germany invades Rhineland ► Germany annexes Austria ► Takes over part of Czechoslovakia ► League does nothing to stop them.

8 Policy of Appeasement ► At the Munich Conferences Great Britain and France adopt the policy of Appeasement ► Appeasement: Giving into the competitor in order to keep peace ► Germany is allowed to keep the land taken over - BUT can’t take anymore

9 Appeasement, What? ► After the Munich Conference - Germany continues to invade  Germany took over the rest of Czechoslovakia  Germany invades Poland (September 1, 1939)

10 The War Begins ► After Hitler invades Poland France and Great Britain declare war on Germany

11 United States Neutrality ► Neutrality Acts declared the US would stay out of war ► Americans were fearful of getting involved in another European conflict ► Started Cash and Carry policy

12 The Fall of France ► The Germans invaded France in 1940 ► Months later all of France had fallen to the Nazis ► Charles de Gualle escaped to Great Britain to strategize how to get France back

13 Battle of Britain ► Germans set out a Blitzkrieg operation in France. ► The bombing of Britain lasted for months ► British never surrendered

14 FDR’s Garden Hose ► “If your neighbor’s house is on fire you would let him borrow your garden hose” ► FDR started the “Lend Lease Program” - Loaned war materials to the Allies

15 U.S. Moving Closer to War ► ► Nazi victories in 1940 lead to increased U.S. defense spending ► ► First peacetime draft enacted—Selective Training and Service Act: Draftees to serve for 1 year in Western Hemisphere only. ► ► FDR, Churchill issue Atlantic Charter —joint declaration of war aims ► ► Charter is basis of “A Declaration of the United Nations” or Allies

16 Japanese Attack ► The Japanese need oil from US, we refused to trade with them ► December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked the US at Pearl Harbor in the Pacific Ocean ► 2,403 Americans killed; 1,178 wounded ► Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged

17 Bombing of Pearl Harbor

18 “A day which will live in infamy”

19 US Enters the War ► December 8, 1941 US declares war on Japan ► December 11, 1941 Germany declares war on the United States jpg FDR’s Speech to Congress

20 The American Homefront ► The United States government stirs patriotic feelings ► Movies are used to build morale ► Propaganda is used to keep war effort going ► People rationed goods/supplies and started Victory Gardens

21 Continued War Effort

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23 Women Enter the Workforce War_Job_LG.jpg

24 Women Enter the Military

25 On the home front ► Many factories converted to make weapons ► Nearly 18 million workers in war industries; 6 million are women ► Over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first ►A. Philip Randolph, head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters ►Organizes march on D.C.; FDR executive order forbids discrimination

26 Ford Plant during WWII

27 African Americans in the Military

28 Mexican Americans in the War Effort

29 Navajo Code Talkers https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2008-featured-story-archive/navajo-code-talkers/navajo-code-talkers-1.jpg

30 Japanese Americans ► Many Japanese Americans served heroically for the US in World War II ► The Nisei Regiment received high honors and awards of distinction for bravery

31 Japanese Americans Interned ► Many Americans were distrusting of Japanese Americans ► Thousands of Japanese Americans were forced into Internment Camps in the Midwest throughout WWII

32 Internment Camp

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35 Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler broke the non-aggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union -Germans wanted to obtain the Soviet oil fields quickly -The Germans were unsuccessful in the winter months

36 Stalingrad ► Germans tried to siege Russian city of Stalingrad ► Russians pushed the Germans out of Stalingrad ► Turning point on the Eastern Front

37 Fall of Italy ► Allies moved to Italy ► Mussolini was overthrown and moved his government to Northern Italy ► Allies freed Northern Italy ► Mussolini was shot and killed by Italians

38 Death of Mussolini

39 D - Day Invasion ► June 6, 1944 Allies open operation to free France ► Landed on the Beaches of Normandy under the command of Dwight D. Eisenhower ► Heavy loss of life but successful in freeing France

40 Eisenhower Commands

41 Amphibious Landing

42 Battle of the Bulge ► Nazi’s last offensive attack ► Attacked area between France and Germany ► US soldiers attacked from the rear and defeated the Germans

43 FDR Dies in Office April 1945

44 Victory in Europe Day ► Soviet army surrounded Berlin ► Nazis surrendered to Eisenhower ► May 7, 1945: V-E Day ► Hitler refuses to surrender and commits suicide

45 tler_Stars_and_Stripes_Fuehrer_Dead.jpg

46 Hitler’s Final Solution ► Holocaust ► People effected:  Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, disabled, mentally ill  11 million die, over half are Jews ust_israel_survivors.jpg

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49 1 million pairs of shoes

50 War in the Pacific ► In first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers empire ► Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines ► March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula ► FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remain (says he will return)

51 Prisoners of War ► Bataan Death March  Shows treatment of POWs in the Pacific  76,000 American and Filipino POWs  Forced to march for 61 miles in tropical heat with no food and only a sip of water  10,000 died/executed during march  15,000 killed at end of the march

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53 War in the Pacific ► Battle of Midway is won by U.S. after breaking Japanese code. Sink 4 Jap. Aircraft Carriers. Battle is fought entirely in the air. ► US begins “Island Hopping” beginning with Guadalcanal ► U.S. starts to Capture islands getting closer to Japan

54 U.S. takes back Philippines ► Summer 1944 U.S. attacks Japan in the Philippines ► Largest naval battle ever fought off shore, 280 warships involved ► Japan starts the use of kamikaze attacks ► Japanese soldiers also start suicide attacks

55 Kamikazes

56 Iwo Jima and Okinawa ► Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan ► 6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive ► April 1945 U.S. Marines invade Okinawa ► 170,000 Japanese defend island, only 10,000 surrender. ► April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die ► Allies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualties

57 Iwo Jima

58 Japan Surrenders Manhattan Project - U.S. develops atomic bomb (started many years earlier) 1. US Drops first atomic bomb on Hiroshima 2. Soviet Union invades Japan 3. US Drops second atomic bomb on Nagasaki 4. Japan Surrenders

59 Atomic Bomb

60 Hiroshima

61 Hiroshima

62 Victory Over Japan Day

63 The Yalta Conference ► February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta to discuss post-war world ► FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts ► Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan ► FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations

64 Effects of World War II ► Geneva Convention  Set guidelines for POWs ► Nuremberg Trials -24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced ► Formation of Israel  Jewish Nation ► Creation of United Nations  Prevent future wars


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