2 Historical Context1919: Treaty of Versailles signed; not everyone happyGreat Depression military expenditures help mitigate effects…. But, also a rearmament for warArms build-up increases industrial output and protects against real or perceived threatsLeague of Nations has little powerNo control of major conflictsNo progress in disarmamentNo effective military forceThus, just like WWI, nationalism, industrialism, and militarism were key factors in beginning WWII.
4 Steps to War: Unchecked Aggression Japan invades Manchuria, 1931Italy attacks Ethiopia, 1935Japan invades China, 1937Germany invades the Rhineland, 1936Germany invades Poland, 1939The war officially begins
5 Nationalism and Propaganda Propaganda was used to promote war effort (enlist in the military, buy war bonds, work in factories, accept the sacrifices of war) and to depict enemies as inferior and sometimes as monsters/animalsConstant use of propaganda resulted in governments becoming experienced in using technology to shape public opinionHeightened nationalistic messages led to the support of a war that resulted in millions of deaths and widespread environmental damage
6 Key Dates 1939: invasion of Poland and fall of Czechoslovakia 1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact1940: surrender of France1941: U.S. Lend-Lease ActDecember 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor U.S. militarily enters the war
7 Key DatesApril 1942: Bataan Death March, Philippines 76,000 Allied soldiers marched to prisoner-of-war camps; thousands diedJune 4-6, 1942: Battle of Midway Island first clear Japanese loss of the war; forced Japan on the defensiveJune 6, 1944: Normandy Landing/D-DayAugust 1944: liberation of Paris by AlliesDecember 1944 – January 1945: Battle of the Bulge major Allied defeat of Germany; opened door for Allied invasion of Germany; compelled Germany’s surrender
8 Key Dates 1945: Mussolini and his mistress are hung April 30, 1945: Hitler commits suicideMay 8, 1945: V-E (Victory in Europe) DayJuly-August 1945: Potsdam Conference meeting of Truman, Churchill, and Stalin; issued ultimatum to Japan; arranged post-war EuropeAugust 6 and 9, 1945: atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki end of war in Pacific
9 Aftermath Death toll- as many as 50 million dead Horrors of Holocaust- 6 million Jews killed; 11 million total people (United Nations gives a name to this kind of killing: genocide)Japanese unconditional surrender limitation of military and power of emperorWar crimes trials: Axis political and military leaders; many never captured/brought to trialEstablishment of United Nations
10 AftermathDivisions grow between the Allied forces Cold War begins between democratic countries and communist countriesUS forms NATO; Soviet Union creates Warsaw PactGermany divided- East and West Germany, division of Berlin