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US Involvement in WWII Chapter 20. Ch. 20.1 I. Converting the Economy A. US produced 2x the amount of other nation’s factories – important to victory.

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Presentation on theme: "US Involvement in WWII Chapter 20. Ch. 20.1 I. Converting the Economy A. US produced 2x the amount of other nation’s factories – important to victory."— Presentation transcript:

1 US Involvement in WWII Chapter 20

2 Ch. 20.1

3 I. Converting the Economy A. US produced 2x the amount of other nation’s factories – important to victory A. US produced 2x the amount of other nation’s factories – important to victory B. Needed to rapidly mobilize (“get ready”); US instituted Cost-Plus program B. Needed to rapidly mobilize (“get ready”); US instituted Cost-Plus program C. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) made loans for mobilization C. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) made loans for mobilization

4 II. American Industry A. After Pearl Harbor, almost all industries converted to war production A. After Pearl Harbor, almost all industries converted to war production B. Auto factories turned to production of jeeps, trucks, rifles, tanks, planes, supplies. B. Auto factories turned to production of jeeps, trucks, rifles, tanks, planes, supplies. C. Henry Kaiser’s Liberty Ships C. Henry Kaiser’s Liberty Ships D. War Production Board (WPB) set priorities and production goals. Office of War Mobilization (OWM) to settle arguments between the different agencies. D. War Production Board (WPB) set priorities and production goals. Office of War Mobilization (OWM) to settle arguments between the different agencies.

5 III. Building an Army A. In order to win the war, it was vital that the US built up its armed forces. A. In order to win the war, it was vital that the US built up its armed forces. B. Selective Service and Training Act – 1 st peacetime draft in Am. History. B. Selective Service and Training Act – 1 st peacetime draft in Am. History. C. Overwhelming volunteers – short training, but camaraderie made an effective unit. C. Overwhelming volunteers – short training, but camaraderie made an effective unit.

6 D. US Army was segregated. Blacks were in their own military units, with White officers D. US Army was segregated. Blacks were in their own military units, with White officers E. “Double V Campaign” E. “Double V Campaign” F. 99 th Pursuit Squadron – Tuskegee Airmen; Important role in the battle of Anzio in Italy. F. 99 th Pursuit Squadron – Tuskegee Airmen; Important role in the battle of Anzio in Italy. G. In the army, Blacks also performed well, receiving various awards for distinguished service; Segregation ended in G. In the army, Blacks also performed well, receiving various awards for distinguished service; Segregation ended in 1948.

7 Some of the Tuskegee Airmen

8 H. Congress established the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) in May First women in American military. By 1943 women became a part of regular war operations. Each branch had their organizations. H. Congress established the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) in May First women in American military. By 1943 women became a part of regular war operations. Each branch had their organizations. I the American troops were untrained and had little military experience. Got the job done; fewest casualties in combat of all the major war powers. I the American troops were untrained and had little military experience. Got the job done; fewest casualties in combat of all the major war powers.

9 WAACS and WAVES

10 Ch

11 I. Pacific Front A. After Pearl Harbor, American bases in Philippines attacked A. After Pearl Harbor, American bases in Philippines attacked B. Philippines; General MacArthur; Bataan Death March B. Philippines; General MacArthur; Bataan Death March C. Doolittle Raid C. Doolittle Raid D. Turning Point in the Pacific: Battle of Midway – destroyed Japanese carriers D. Turning Point in the Pacific: Battle of Midway – destroyed Japanese carriers

12 II. Turning Back the Germans A. Stalin urged US & UK to open a second front; Churchill wanted to attack periphery (N. Africa) A. Stalin urged US & UK to open a second front; Churchill wanted to attack periphery (N. Africa) B. Began under General Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton – Casablanca, Kasserine Pass B. Began under General Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton – Casablanca, Kasserine Pass C. Convoy system to defeat German submarine threat. C. Convoy system to defeat German submarine threat. D. Hitler wants to destroy USSR economy; Soviets hold out – Stalingrad was turning point. D. Hitler wants to destroy USSR economy; Soviets hold out – Stalingrad was turning point.

13 Some Links… l l l l

14 Ch. 20.3

15 I. Women and Minorities A. War had positive effect of US society A. War had positive effect of US society Ended Depression Ended Depression Created 19 million new jobs Created 19 million new jobs Doubled family incomes Doubled family incomes B. Labor shortage forced employers to hire more women for men’s jobs. 2.5 million women entered manufacturing. B. Labor shortage forced employers to hire more women for men’s jobs. 2.5 million women entered manufacturing.

16 Rosie the Riveter

17 C. Discrimination against Blacks C. Discrimination against Blacks A. Philip Randolph (Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) organized a march to secure jobs. A. Philip Randolph (Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) organized a march to secure jobs. FDR responded with Executive Order 8802 – no discrimination in defense industries or government FDR responded with Executive Order 8802 – no discrimination in defense industries or government D. Bracero Program – Mexican nationals arranged to help on SW farms. 200,000 came to work farms and RRs. D. Bracero Program – Mexican nationals arranged to help on SW farms. 200,000 came to work farms and RRs.

18 II. Nation on the Move A. 15 million moved to West and South for jobs; New industrial region called Sunbelt A. 15 million moved to West and South for jobs; New industrial region called Sunbelt B. Fed. Gov’t issued $1.2 billion for schools, housing, community centers B. Fed. Gov’t issued $1.2 billion for schools, housing, community centers C. Continuance of Great Migration (S to N. Cities). Racism often worse in North than South C. Continuance of Great Migration (S to N. Cities). Racism often worse in North than South

19 D. Zoot Suit Riots – popular among Mexican-Americans in California; Rumors of attack on several sailors. Led to violence in LA. D. Zoot Suit Riots – popular among Mexican-Americans in California; Rumors of attack on several sailors. Led to violence in LA. E. Feb 19, 1942, FDR allowed the War Dept. to declare any part of the US a military zone and remove anybody from that zone – led to internment of Japanese- Americans. E. Feb 19, 1942, FDR allowed the War Dept. to declare any part of the US a military zone and remove anybody from that zone – led to internment of Japanese- Americans.

20 III. Daily Life A. Office of Price Administration – Regulated farm wages A. Office of Price Administration – Regulated farm wages B. Office of Economic Administration – Regulated everything else B. Office of Economic Administration – Regulated everything else C. Rationing – limiting the availability of products C. Rationing – limiting the availability of products D. E bonds were used to raise money for the war D. E bonds were used to raise money for the war E. Most were united in support of war. E. Most were united in support of war.

21 Ch. 20.4

22 I. Striking Back at the 3 rd Reich A. Casablanca Conference – What to do now? A. Casablanca Conference – What to do now? Increase bombing of Germany Increase bombing of Germany Destroy military, industrial, and economic system Destroy military, industrial, and economic system Hurt German morale Hurt German morale Attack Sicily Attack Sicily

23 B. Did not destroy morale or economy. Destroyed irreplaceable resources and aircraft; Helped in D-Day invasion B. Did not destroy morale or economy. Destroyed irreplaceable resources and aircraft; Helped in D-Day invasion C. Dwight D. Eisenhower – overall commander of Sicily invasion C. Dwight D. Eisenhower – overall commander of Sicily invasion Victorious Victorious Mussolini was arrested by Italians Mussolini was arrested by Italians September 1943 – surrender of Italy September 1943 – surrender of Italy Hitler reoccupies Italy; puts Mussolini back into power. Hitler reoccupies Italy; puts Mussolini back into power. Germans retreat in May Germans retreat in May 1944.

24 D. FDR, Stalin, Churchill meet in Tehran, Iran, and discuss plans for the rest of the war. D. FDR, Stalin, Churchill meet in Tehran, Iran, and discuss plans for the rest of the war. Renewed Soviet offensive against Germany Renewed Soviet offensive against Germany Allies would invade France (D-Day) Allies would invade France (D-Day) Germany would be broken up after the war Germany would be broken up after the war USSR would help US defeat Japan 3 months after surrender of Germany USSR would help US defeat Japan 3 months after surrender of Germany Formation of a new United Nations. Formation of a new United Nations.

25 II. Landing in France A. Operation Overlord – Commanded by Eisenhower; Invasion of France (Normandy) – D-Day. A. Operation Overlord – Commanded by Eisenhower; Invasion of France (Normandy) – D-Day. Allied had advantage of surprise Allied had advantage of surprise Germany thought they’d strike Pas-de-Calais Germany thought they’d strike Pas-de-Calais Conditions? Conditions?

26 B. Began shortly after midnight, June 6, B. Began shortly after midnight, June 6, Attack slowed at Utah Beach; Immense casualties at Omaha Beach Attack slowed at Utah Beach; Immense casualties at Omaha Beach Gen. Omar Bradley considered evacuation, but the attack succeeded. Gen. Omar Bradley considered evacuation, but the attack succeeded. C. Allied forces now had a foot-hold in France. C. Allied forces now had a foot-hold in France.

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31 III. Driving the Japanese Back A. Island Hopping – Advance from island to island, capturing key locations to proceed toward Japan A. Island Hopping – Advance from island to island, capturing key locations to proceed toward Japan Commanded by Adml. Chester Nimitz B. Gen. MacArthur would advance through the Solomon Islands, capture N. coast of New Guinea, and retake the Philippines B. Gen. MacArthur would advance through the Solomon Islands, capture N. coast of New Guinea, and retake the Philippines

32 C. Island hopping campaign would begin in fall of C. Island hopping campaign would begin in fall of st action: Tarawa Atoll – amphibious assault led to many dead marines 1 st action: Tarawa Atoll – amphibious assault led to many dead marines Led to use of LVT (Amphtrac) Led to use of LVT (Amphtrac) Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) went smoother Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) went smoother B-29 bombers were used to capture the Mariana Islands; Soon after were firebombing Japan B-29 bombers were used to capture the Mariana Islands; Soon after were firebombing Japan

33 D. General MacArthur’s troops invaded Guadalcanal in August 1942; Battle lasted almost 2 years. D. General MacArthur’s troops invaded Guadalcanal in August 1942; Battle lasted almost 2 years. E. Pushed on to capture Hollandia in New Guinea – on to the Philippines E. Pushed on to capture Hollandia in New Guinea – on to the Philippines F Leyte Gulf – American ships ambushed; Kamikaze attacks first used F Leyte Gulf – American ships ambushed; Kamikaze attacks first used Manila destroyed, 100,000 Filipinos dead Manila destroyed, 100,000 Filipinos dead

34 Ch 20.5

35 I. Third Reich Collapses A. FDR and Allies promise to punish Nazis after the war; end concentration camps. A. FDR and Allies promise to punish Nazis after the war; end concentration camps. B. Battle of the Hedgerows ended with the allies blowing a hole in the Axis lines B. Battle of the Hedgerows ended with the allies blowing a hole in the Axis lines C. Paris liberated on August 25. Three weeks later, just 20 miles from Germany C. Paris liberated on August 25. Three weeks later, just 20 miles from Germany

36 D. Hitler tried to cut American supply-lines through Antwerp – Battle of the Bulge D. Hitler tried to cut American supply-lines through Antwerp – Battle of the Bulge Began Dec. 16, 1944 Began Dec. 16, 1944 Allied lines “bulged” but did not break Allied lines “bulged” but did not break Weakened Nazis could not renew attack, and broke. Weakened Nazis could not renew attack, and broke. E. Failed to destroy the Ludendorf Bridge, and Allies entered Germany E. Failed to destroy the Ludendorf Bridge, and Allies entered Germany F. Hitler killed himself; Germany surrendered a week later. May 7, 1945 = V-E (Victory in Europe) Day. F. Hitler killed himself; Germany surrendered a week later. May 7, 1945 = V-E (Victory in Europe) Day.

37 II. Japan is Defeated A. In April, 1945, FDR dies. Harry S Truman becomes President. A. In April, 1945, FDR dies. Harry S Truman becomes President. B. To better strike Japan, US must get closer. Battle of Iwo Jima. 6,800 casualties B. To better strike Japan, US must get closer. Battle of Iwo Jima. 6,800 casualties ilitary/sixboys.asp ilitary/sixboys.asp ilitary/sixboys.asp ilitary/sixboys.asp C. Firebombing of Japan C. Firebombing of Japan D. Japan refused to surrender – US invades Okinawa D. Japan refused to surrender – US invades Okinawa

38 E. Japan will not surrender unconditionally. Why? E. Japan will not surrender unconditionally. Why? F. Manhattan Project F. Manhattan Project G. Truman’s threat G. Truman’s threat H. August 6 – Hiroshima; August 9 – Nagasaki. H. August 6 – Hiroshima; August 9 – Nagasaki. I. Truman’s decision debated I. Truman’s decision debated J. V-J Day (Victory over Japan) J. V-J Day (Victory over Japan)

39 III.Building a New World A. United Nations A. United Nations Organization Organization General Assembly General Assembly Security Council Security Council Role, membership, and Veto Power Role, membership, and Veto Power

40 B. International Military Tribunal B. International Military Tribunal C. Nuremburg Trials C. Nuremburg Trials D. Reasons and exemptions. D. Reasons and exemptions.

41 Key People you need to know!

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