2Two Wars Pacific Theater European Theater In the Pacific it was largely the U.S. challenging Japan.When the U.S. got involved in Dec. 1941, Germany controlled most of Europe.
3Military Leaders to Know George Marshall – Chief of Staff of MilitaryGen. Dwight D. Eisenhower – Supreme Commander of Allied forces in EuropeGen. Douglas MacArthur – Leader of Pacific ForcesOthers to be familiar with:U.S. – Gen. Omar Bradley, Gen. George Patton, Adm. Chester NimitzGerman – Erwin Rommel, British – Bernard Montgomery, French – Charles de Gaulle, Chinese – Chaing Kai Shek, Mao Zedong
4Atlantic Ocean War U.S. had to overcome German subs (Wolfpacks) Used Convoys and produced more Liberty ShipsUse of sonar, radar and bombing of bases.What was the impact of subs on Florida?
5Africa and Europe 1942 & 1943Operation Torch – taking of North Africa. What was important about North Africa?2nd Front – Stalin was calling for a 2nd front. In Feb., 1943, the Soviets stopped the German advance at the Battle of Stalingrad. Began slow push back.U.S./British would invade Sicily and Italy in It would take 2 years to fully defeat Germans there.
6FranceOn June 6, 1944, the 2nd front requested by Stalin finally came with the largest air-sea-land battle.D-day with the codename Operation Overlord with the landing on the Normandy coast of France.By the end of August, Paris was liberated.
8German SurrenderGermans had desperate counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge in Dec., 1944, but eventually lost.April 30, 1945 – Hitler kills himselfMay 8, 1945 – VE DayIn final months, U.S. troops discovered the concentration camps.
9Pacific Theater After Pearl Harbor, Japan continued their expansion. April, 1942 – MacArthur pushed out of Philippines and the Bataan Death march.Turning point – Battles of Coral Sea and Midway in May and June Stopped invasion of Australia and destroyed four Japanese carriers (& 300 planes)
10Island HoppingPlan in Pacific – skip over (and isolate) strongly held islands and advance towards JapanAug –Guadalcanal - 1stland defeat
111944 & 1945 PacificOct, 1944 – Leyte Gulf (Philippines) – Mac returns as Japanese Navy is virtually wiped out. (kamikazes used)Spring, 1945 – Iwo Jima and Okinawa – fierce fighting to the death by the Japanese.From Iwo Jima, U.S. could now launch air bombing raids on JapanQuestion for new President Truman – If the Japanese would fight that hard on other land, what would happen in an invasion of their home country?
12Manhattan ProjectWho convinced FDR to approve the Manhattan Project in the early part of the war?Robert Oppenheimer – head of projectWhat was the decision that now President Truman had to make?Hiroshima and Nagasaki – only places in world that have ever had an atomic bomb used.Enola Gay – plane that dropped 1st bomb (Little Boy)Besides saving lives, what was another reason Truman decided?
13VJ Day VJ Day – September 2, 1945 On USS Missouri Japan accepts unconditional surrender
14Wartime ConferencesAtlantic Charter – FDR and Churchill before U.S. in warCasablanca – FDR and Churchill (Jan ’43)Will accept only an Unconditional SurrenderTeheran – FDR, Churchill, and Stalin (Nov ’43)Plan for 2nd frontYalta – FDR, Churchill, and Stalin (Feb ’45)Plan for post-war Eastern Europe and U.N.Potsdam – Truman, Attlee, and StalinTruman does not trust Stalin (how will that affect bomb decision?)
15Nuremberg Trials Military Tribunals to try the lead Nazis. Why is this something different from prior history?
16Marshall Plan George Marshall’s plan to rebuild war-torn Europe Any other reasons?Did it work?Why did the USSR and Eastern bloc countries not participate?