Microorganisms that cause disease Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases. Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism.
Microorganisms Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body. Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.
Disease Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host
Pathogen A disease producing microorganism. Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction Cause tissue damage Secrete substance that produce effects in the body Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)
Types of Nosocomial Infections Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people Contaminated Hospital Environment Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV
Bloodborne Pathogens Disease-causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood. Ex: Hepatitis, Syphilis, Malaria, HIV. Two most significant bloodborne pathogens: Hepatitis B and HIV
How Bloodborne Pathogens are Transmitted: You must make contact with contaminated fluids and permit them a way to enter your body. Contaminated body fluids can be saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, or other fluids containing blood (urine).
Universal Precautions Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions: Wash your hands Wear gloves Handle sharp objects carefully Properly clean all spills Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.
Airborne Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust. TB, Chickenpox, Measles Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room. Pt should wear mask.
Droplet Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking. Rubella, Mumps, Influenza Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt. Pt should wear a mask.
Contact Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing). Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.
Controlling the spread of Disease Chemotherapy Immunization Asepsis –Medical –Surgical Disinfectants
Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions –Gloving –Gowns –Face masks –Eyewear
Handwashing Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present. Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.
So What, and Who Cares? Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life- threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!
Vital Signs Indication of Homeostasis Primary Mechanisms Heart beat Blood pressure Body temperature Respiratory rate Electrolyte balance Physical assessment include measurement of vital signs Body Temperature Pulse Respiration Blood Pressure Mental Status
Body Temperature Normal average body temperature: 98.6 F Humans can survive between 106 F and 93.2 F. Hypothermia Hyperthermia Measuring Body Temperature Oral Rectal Axillary Tympanic
Pulse Pulse rate: Adult = 60 to 100 beats per minute Children under 10 = 70 to 120 beats per minute Tachycardia Bradycardia
Respiratory Rate Breaths per minute: Adult = 12 to 20 Children under 10 = 20 to 30 per min Tachypnea Bradypena Dyspnea Apnea
Pulse Oximeter Normal Pulse Oximeter = 95% to 100%
Medical Emergencies Definitions What should the RT know? Common Radiology Emergencies
Medical Emergencies Definition: Sudden change in medical status requiring immediate action. For RT’s medical emergencies are rare, however as medical personnel we must be prepared to recognize emergencies.
What an RT should know….. How to….. Avoid additional harm to the patient Obtain appropriate medical assistance quickly Recognize emergency situations Remain calm and confident
Anaphylactic Reaction An immune response to foreign material Bronchospasm – wheezing and edema in the throat and lungs Can lead to shock Requires prompt recognition and treatment from the technologist Why do RT’s care about Anaphylactic RXN’s….?
Water Soluble Iodine High atomic # 53 Radiopaque Used to radiograph –Vessels –Arteries –Veins –Function of internal organs