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Infection Control, Vital Signs, Oxygen & Medical Emergencies RTEC A Week 13 Warning: blood and guts to follow !

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Control, Vital Signs, Oxygen & Medical Emergencies RTEC A Week 13 Warning: blood and guts to follow !"— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Control, Vital Signs, Oxygen & Medical Emergencies RTEC A Week 13 Warning: blood and guts to follow !

2 Infection Control Microorganisms Infectious Disease Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Disease Control Environment


4 Microorganisms that cause disease Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases. Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism.

5 Microorganisms Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body. Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.

6 Disease Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host

7 Pathogen A disease producing microorganism.  Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction  Cause tissue damage  Secrete substance that produce effects in the body Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)

8 Bacteria  Strep Throat  Bacterial Pneumonia  Food Poisoning

9 Protozoan Trichomonas Vaginalis Plasmodium Vivax –Malaria

10 Viruses Common cold Mononucleosis Warts

11 Fungi Athlete’s Foot –Tinea pedis Ringworm

12 6 Steps of Infection Encounter Entry Spread Multiplication Damage Outcome

13 Chain of Infection  Host  Infectious Microorganism  Mode of Transmission  Vector/ Fomite  Reservoir

14 Nosocomial Infections  Infections originating in the hospital; an infection not present before admittance to the hospital.

15 Nosocomial Infections  Iatrogenic Infection  Compromised Patients  Patient Flora  Hospital Environment  Bloodborne Pathogens

16 Types of Nosocomial Infections  Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities  Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed  Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people  Contaminated Hospital Environment  Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV

17 Third Degree Burn

18 Bloodborne Pathogens Disease-causing microorganisms that may be present in human blood. Ex: Hepatitis, Syphilis, Malaria, HIV. Two most significant bloodborne pathogens: Hepatitis B and HIV

19 How Bloodborne Pathogens are Transmitted: You must make contact with contaminated fluids and permit them a way to enter your body. Contaminated body fluids can be saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, or other fluids containing blood (urine).

20 Universal Precautions Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions: Wash your hands Wear gloves Handle sharp objects carefully Properly clean all spills Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.

21 Airborne Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust. TB, Chickenpox, Measles Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room. Pt should wear mask.

22 Droplet Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking. Rubella, Mumps, Influenza Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt. Pt should wear a mask.

23 Contact Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing). Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.

24 Controlling the spread of Disease Chemotherapy Immunization Asepsis –Medical –Surgical Disinfectants

25 Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions –Gloving –Gowns –Face masks –Eyewear

26 Handwashing Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present. Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.

27 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Gloves Masks Gowns Protective Eyewear Caps

28 So What, and Who Cares? Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life- threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!

29 Syphilis in the eye

30 Review Microorganisms Disease Pathogen Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoan 6 Steps of Infection Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Controlling Disease Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions Universal Precautions


32 Questions? Infection Control

33 Vital Signs Oxygen Therapy Oxygen Devices Chest Tubes and Lines

34 Vital Signs Indication of Homeostasis Primary Mechanisms Heart beat Blood pressure Body temperature Respiratory rate Electrolyte balance Physical assessment include measurement of vital signs Body Temperature Pulse Respiration Blood Pressure Mental Status

35 Body Temperature Normal average body temperature: 98.6 F Humans can survive between 106 F and 93.2 F. Hypothermia Hyperthermia Measuring Body Temperature Oral Rectal Axillary Tympanic

36 Pulse Pulse rate: Adult = 60 to 100 beats per minute Children under 10 = 70 to 120 beats per minute Tachycardia Bradycardia

37 Respiratory Rate Breaths per minute: Adult = 12 to 20 Children under 10 = 20 to 30 per min Tachypnea Bradypena Dyspnea Apnea

38 Pulse Oximeter Normal Pulse Oximeter = 95% to 100%

39 Blood Pressure Systolic pressure = 95-140 mmHg Diastolic pressure = 60-90 mmHg Hypertension Hypotension

40 Oxygen Oxygen constitutes 21% of atmospheric gases If O2 levels in the body drop below 21% homeostasis is altered. Hypoxia: Inadequate amount of oxygen at the cellular level.

41 Oxygen Devices Nasal Cannula Masks Nonrebreathing mask Aerosol mask Air-entrainment mask Tent and Oxyhood

42 Chest Tubes and Lines Endotracheal Tube (ET) –Ventilator Chest Tubes Nasogastric tube (NG) Central Lines










52 Review Vital Signs Homeostasis Body Temperature Pulse Respiration Blood Pressure Mental Status Electrolyte balance Pulse Oximeter Oxygen Oxygen Devices Chest Tubes Chest Lines

53 Winston Churchill  "The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty." Winston Churchill

54 Questions? Vital Signs

55 Medical Emergencies





60 You never know what or who you will come in next……….





65 Dislocation of the C3 and C4 articular processes Note that C7 is not well demonstrated

66 Some studies of spinal trauma have recorded a missed injury rate as high as 33%.





71 GSW to the Abdomen  




75 Compound Fx of Femur



78 Medical Emergencies Definitions What should the RT know? Common Radiology Emergencies

79 Medical Emergencies Definition: Sudden change in medical status requiring immediate action. For RT’s medical emergencies are rare, however as medical personnel we must be prepared to recognize emergencies.


81 Fractured Forearm

82 What an RT should know….. How to….. Avoid additional harm to the patient Obtain appropriate medical assistance quickly Recognize emergency situations Remain calm and confident

83 Anaphylactic Reaction An immune response to foreign material Bronchospasm – wheezing and edema in the throat and lungs Can lead to shock Requires prompt recognition and treatment from the technologist Why do RT’s care about Anaphylactic RXN’s….?

84 Water Soluble Iodine High atomic # 53 Radiopaque Used to radiograph –Vessels –Arteries –Veins –Function of internal organs

85 Iodine Contrast Material Ionic Iodine Contrast –Anion - –Cation + –More patient allergic reactions Non-Ionic Contrast –Less patient allergic reactions

86 Radiology Department Patients are usually sent to the radiology department only after they have been stabilized. However……

87 General Priorities Ensure an open airway Control Bleeding Take Measures to Prevent shock Attend to wounds or fractures appropriately Provide emotional support Continually reevaluate and follow up

88 ABC A = Air Way B = Breathing C = Circulation

89 CPR C = Cardio P = Pulmonary R = Respiration Must be certified for the “Health Care Provider” Cards good for 2 years are available.

90 Become familiar with……….. In your work environment: –Emergency assistance protocol (how to get help) –Emergency Cart/Crash Cart Location

91 Important Conditions to be Aware of…… Level of Consciousness: ALOC Altered Level Of Consciousness Anaphylactic Shock: vasogenic shock Hypoglycemic/Hyperglycemia NPO – Nothing by Mouth

92 Medical Terms to Know….. Pallor = paleness; absence of skin coloration Shock = failure of the circulatory system CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation For program must be for Health Care Provider

93 Continued…………… Stroke = Cerebrovascular Accident (brain) Heart Attack = Myocardial Infarct (heart) N/V = Nausea & Vomiting Epistaxis = nosebleed Vertigo = dizziness Syncope = fainting

94 And more…… Hemorrhage = bleeding outside a vessel



97 Radiologic Technology You never know when a medical emergency may occur. Helping your patients depends on your abilities to stay calm and perform you duties!

98 Questions? Infection Control Vital Signs Medical Emergencies

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