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Infection Control Warning: blood and guts to follow !

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Presentation on theme: "Infection Control Warning: blood and guts to follow !"— Presentation transcript:

1 Infection Control Warning: blood and guts to follow !

2 Infection Control


4 Infection Control Microorganisms Infectious Disease Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Disease Control Environment


6 Microorganisms that cause disease Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Can grow in or on an animal or plant and cause diseases. Host: animal or plant that provides life support to another organism.

7 Microorganisms Disease: Any change from the normal structure or function in the human body. Infection: Growth of a microorganism on or in a host.


9 Disease Disease occurs only when the microorganism causes injury to the host

10 Pathogen A disease producing microorganism.  Multiply in large numbers and cause an obstruction  Cause tissue damage  Secrete substance that produce effects in the body Exotoxins ( high body temp, nausea, vomiting)

11 Bacteria  Strep Throat  Bacterial Pneumonia  Food Poisoning

12 Protozoan Trichomonas Vaginalis Plasmodium Vivax –Malaria

13 Viruses Common cold Mononucleosis Warts

14 Fungi Athlete’s Foot –Tinea pedis Ringworm

15 Chain of Infection  Host  Infectious Microorganism  Mode of Transmission  Vector/ Fomite  Reservoir

16 6 Steps of Infection Encounter Entry Spread Multiplication Damage Outcome

17 6 Steps of Infection Encounter Entry Spread Multiplication Damage Outcome Which of these steps if stopped can prevent infection? What can health care workers do to prevent them?

18 Nosocomial Infections  Infections originating in the hospital; an infection not present before admittance to the hospital.

19 Nosocomial Infections  Iatrogenic Infection  Compromised Patients  Patient Flora  Hospital Environment  Bloodborne Pathogens

20 Third Degree Burn The skin: the body’s first natural defense to disease



23 Universal Precautions Since there is no way you can know if a person is infected, you should ALWAYS use universal precautions: Wash your hands Wear gloves Handle sharp objects carefully Properly clean all spills Wear mask, eye protection, and apron if splashing is a possibility.

24 Airborne Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that remain suspended in air for long periods on aerosol droplets or dust. TB, Chickenpox, Measles Respiratory protection must be worn when entering pt room. Pt should wear mask.

25 Droplet Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that disseminate through large particulate droplets expelled from coughing, sneezing, or even talking. Rubella, Mumps, Influenza Surgical mask must be worn when within 3 feet of the pt. Pt should wear a mask.

26 Contact Precautions Patients infected with pathogens that spread by direct contact with the pt or by indirect contact with a contaminated object (bedrail, pt dressing). Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Hepatitis A, Varicella, Flesh-eating Virus All PPE should be used and equipment must be disinfected after use.

27 Controlling the spread of Disease Chemotherapy Immunization Asepsis –Medical –Surgical Disinfectants

28 Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions –Gloving –Gowns –Face masks –Eyewear

29 Handwashing Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. 7 to 8 minutes of washing to remove the microbes present, depending on the number present. Most effective portion of handwashing is the mechanical action of rubbing the hands together.

30 Types of Nosocomial Infections Iatrogenic Infection – related to physician activities Compromised Patients - weakened resistance; immunosuppressed Patient Flora - microbes in healthy people Contaminated Hospital Environment Bloodborne Pathogens – Hepatitis B and HIV

31 So What, and Who Cares? Students and Techs are challenged both physically and mentally by the microbial world. In this world of newly found, life- threatening diseases, education has become the key to survival. Health care providers must be committed to infection control so that diseases can be conquered!

32 Syphilis in the eye

33 infection spread

34 Infection Control per JCAHO

35 Fingernail Compliance No more than ¼ inch long No artificial nails No chips on nail polish

36 When do you wash your hands? When hands are visibly soiled Before and after patient contact After removal of gloves After using the toilet After blowing or wiping the nose Upon leaving an isolation area

37 When do you wash your hands? Before Eating How long do you wash?  10-15 Seconds

38 What are some examples of proper usage of gloves? Wear gloves when you anticipate possible contamination When handling chemicals like disinfectants for cleaning Remove gloves immediately after performing task and performing hand hygiene Hallways should be considered a “glove free zone”

39 When do you use disinfectant jell? Before and after patient care when hands are not visibly soiled Before performing invasive procedures for hand decontamination To decontaminate hands after contact with patient’s intact skin, i.e., after taking vital signs

40 What are examples of Standard Precautions?

41 Use of PPE (personal protective equipment) Protective housekeeping Practicing good hygiene

42 What are the 3 Transmission- based Isolation Precautions?

43 Contact Droplet Airborne

44 Review Microorganisms Disease Pathogen Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoan 6 Steps of Infection Chain of Infection Nosocomial Infection Controlling Disease Physical Methods of Controlling Diseases Handwashing Standard Precautions Universal Precautions


46 Asepsis Two types: –Surgical(sterilization) –Medical

47 Asepsis ChemicalPhysical

48 Standard Precautions Any possible contact with blood, bodily fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes In x-ray rooms: hand-washing gloving PPE needle recapping bio-spills

49 Transmission Based Precautions Considered whenever a patient is infected with known disease airborne droplet contact

50 Questions? Infection Control

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