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The Worlds of North & South. NORTHSOUTH  Climate – Cold Winters, Hot Humid Summers  Coast  Harbors & Inlets– shipbuilding, fishing, commerce  Jagged.

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Presentation on theme: "The Worlds of North & South. NORTHSOUTH  Climate – Cold Winters, Hot Humid Summers  Coast  Harbors & Inlets– shipbuilding, fishing, commerce  Jagged."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Worlds of North & South

2 NORTHSOUTH  Climate – Cold Winters, Hot Humid Summers  Coast  Harbors & Inlets– shipbuilding, fishing, commerce  Jagged New England Coast  Inland  Narrow flat plain, rocky soil not ideal for farming  Thick Forests – timber harvested  1850 – 177,000 sq miles cleared  Rivers – rich soil  Wide plains, rich soil in New York, New Jersey and Pennylvania  Climate  Mild winters, hot summers  Plenty of rain, long growing seasons  Coast - swampy  Ideal for rice and sugar  Tobacco and corn farther inland  Forests - lumber  Rivers  Broad & flat  Good location for towns

3 NORTHSOUTH

4 NORTHSOUTH Industry  1810 – streams used to power machines in England  1815 – first US factory with spinning and weaving machinery  1830s – steam engines used  Shift from craftspeople to laborers Machines  1831 – first reaper invented (cuts 28 times more than by hand)  1847 – reaper factory in Chicago Agriculture  Eli Whitney-invents Cotton Gin King Cotton  Cotton gin used rotating combs to separate cotton from seeds  1 cotton gin = 50 working by hand  Plantations use slave labor Land & Slaves  Cotton wears out soil – farmers push west  Cotton growth = slave growth : slavery rose from 500,000 to 3 million Tredegar Iron Works

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6 The Impact of the Cotton Gin on Slave Population

7 NORTHSOUTH Roads  1806 – National Rd crosses Appalachian Mtns Ships & Canals  1807 – steamboats  1817 – 36 mile canal built from Hudson River to Lake Erie  1840s – clipper ships used for ocean travel Railroad  1840s – biggest business  1860 – 20,000 miles of rail River  Riverboats brought cotton downstream  West of Appalachians – traveled on Mississippi  Mississippi River- mightiest Southern River Railroad  1860 – 10,000 miles of rail

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9 NORTHSOUTH Northern Statistics  1860 – 7 of 10 lived on farms  – cities with more than 2,500 people increase from 33 to 237  – Population of NY, Philadelphia, and Boston triple African Americans  Free- Not treated equally  Could not vote, hold office, serve on juries, attend white churches and schools Immigrants  Ireland  Germany White Southerners  Wealthy plantation owners dominate economy and politics  Sons go to college, daughters become wives  1 in 4 owned slaves  Majority of slaves worked on fields  10% to poor to own land African Americans  Free blacks were small minority- Forced to wear badges, pay extra taxes, live separately  Majority were slaves- Cooks, carpenters, blacksmiths, house servants, nursemaids, field hands

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