Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination Social Psychology by Tom Giliovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett
2 Characterizing Intergroup Bias Stereotypes - beliefs about attributes that are thought to be characteristic of members of particular groupsPrejudice - a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and its individual membersDiscrimination - unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group
3 Sources of Prejudice Social Sources Cognitive Sources Unequal Status Social IdentityCognitive SourcesStereotypesPerceived Similarities and DifferencesIllusory Correlation
4 Social Sources of Prejudice Unequal Statusrealistic conflict theory - direct competition between groups over valued resources (jobs, schools)Robber’s Cave ExperimentFrustration-Aggression Hypothesis
7 Social Sources of Prejudice Social Identitysocial categorization- divide world into in-group (“us”) and out-group (“them”)in-group bias- view own group more favorablyBele: You're finished Lokai. Oh, we got your kind penned in on Cheron in a little district. And it's not going to change. You half-white. Lokai: You half-black.
9 Cognitive Sources of Prejudice “prejudice is by-product of our thinking processes”stereotypes- sweeping generalizations of social groupsinfluence social thought by:process information consistent with stereotype quickerfocus on information consistent with stereotypeuse tacit inferences to make inconsistent information appear consistent
10 Cognitive Sources of Prejudice out-group homogeneityout-group members seen as more alikein-group differentiationin-group members seen as more diverse (heterogeneous)illusory correlationsoverestimating rates of negative behavior in minority groups
12 DiscriminationDiscrimination- negative behaviors directed toward members of some social groupsubtle formstokenism- perform trivial actions for minoritiesreverse discrimination- leaning over backwards to treat targets of prejudice favorably“modern” racism41010
13 Characterizing Intergroup Bias 1. Modern Racism and SexismModern racism - prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside a rejection of explicitly racist beliefsa. Benevolent Racism and Sexism
14 Characterizing Intergroup Bias 2. Measures to Assess True Attitudesa. Implicit Association Test (IAT)technique for revealing unconscious prejudices toward particular groupsb. Priming and Implicit PrejudicePriming - procedure used to increase the accessibility of a concept or schema (for example, a stereotype)
17 Implicit AttitudesAre automatically activated evaluations outside of a person’s awareness (unconscious)Formed slowly through experienceVery resistant to extinctionChanging implicit attitudesCan be changed without subject’s conscious awarenessPrime subjects with counterstereotypes
18 Being a Member of a Stigmatized Group 1. Attributional Ambiguity2. Stereotype Threat- fear that one will confirm the stereotypes that others have regarding some salient group of which one is a member
19 Reducing Prejudice Social Learning Increase intergroup contact teach parents to socialize children to be tolerantIncrease intergroup contactcontact must involve cooperation and interdependencenorms favoring group equality must existfocus on individual-based (vs. category) processingExtended Contact Hypothesisknowing that members of in-group have formed friendships with out-group members may reduce prejudice41010
20 Reducing Prejudice (con’t) Have groups work on superordinate goalsFocus on similarities between in-group and nonthreatening out-groupRecategorizationreset boundaries between “us” and “them”, so former out-group is now included in in-groupFocus on others’ specific traits and outcomes (attribute-driven processing) rather than on group stereotypes (category-driven processing)41010
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