Presentation on theme: "Exam 1 Review Purpose: Identify Themes Two major sections –Defining Social Psychology and Research Methods –Social Perception."— Presentation transcript:
Exam 1 Review Purpose: Identify Themes Two major sections –Defining Social Psychology and Research Methods –Social Perception
Defining Social Psychology What is it? How does it differ from other related fields?
Research Methods What’s a theory? How is it evaluated What’s a Hypothesis? How does applied research differ from basic research? Conceptual vs. Operational variables? Correlational Designs Experimental Designs How do correlational and experimental research differ?
Research Methods In Experiments: –Random sampling vs. random assignment –Why is random assignment important? –What is an independent variable? Dependent variable? –Be able to identify and translate conceptual variables to operationalized variables
Theme of this section of course: Social Perception How do we perceive: –Ourselves? –Other individuals? –Other groups?
First Topic: The Self Affect: How do we evaluate ourselves, enhance our self-images, and defend against threats to our self-esteem? Behavior: How do we regulate our actions and present ourselves according to interpersonal demands? Cognition: How do we come to know ourselves, develop a self-concept, and maintain a stable sense of identity?
The ABCs of the Self Cognition: Self-concept Affect: Self-esteem Behavior: Self-presentation
Self-concept Define Cocktail party effect Self-schemas Sources of the self-concept
Source 1: Introspection –Does it lead to an accurate self-concept? –Affective forecasting & durability bias Source 2: Perceptions of our own behavior –Self-perception theory (Bem) –Self-perception of emotion –Intrinsic/Extrinsic motivation –Overjustification effect Sources of the Self-Concept
Source 3: Other people –Social comparison theory (Festinger) –Two-factor theory of emotion (Schacter) Source 4: Autobiographical memories –Flashbulb memories –Self-serving distortions of memories (e.g., high school grades) Source 5: Culture –Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Orientations Sources of the Self-Concept
Self-esteem What function does SE serve? –Need for social belonging/acceptance –Terror Management Theory Influences of Culture Self-discrepancy theory
Self-esteem Self-awareness –Public vs. private self-consciousness Self-regulation Ironic processes –Trying to inhibit a thought, feeling, or behavior sometimes backfires
Mechanisms of Self- Enhancement Self-serving cognitions –Misremembering SAT scores Self-handicapping BIRGing Social comparison
Self-presentation In book, focus on: –Strategic self-presentation strategies; Self-monitoring Ingratiation Self-promotion Self-verification
Second Topic: Person Perception Attribution biases Observation Confirmation biases
Third Topic: Prejudice Stereotypes & Prejudice Intergroup Interactions
How stereotypes form Ingroups and outgroups Social categorization Outgroup homogeneity
How stereotypes survive Illusory correlations Attributions Subtyping and contrast effects Self-fulfilling prophecy
Automaticity of Stereotypes: Influencing Factors Amount of exposure to the stereotype. The kind and amount of information the perceiver encounters. The perceiver’s motivational goals. –e.g., Protecting one’s self-esteem or self-image.
Overcoming Stereotypes How much personal information do we have about someone? What is our cognitive ability to focus on an individual member of a stereotyped group? What is our motivation level to form an accurate impression of someone? How motivated are we to avoid applying negative stereotypes?
Prejudice: The emotional component Competition-based prejudice Explicit vs. Implicit prejudice
Competition-based prejudice Realistic conflict theory –Cotton prices and lynchings
Forms of Prejudice Explicit Attitudes –Ambivalent Sexism –Modern Racism Implicit Attitudes
Explicit Attitudes –Operate at conscious level –Best measured by traditional, self- report measures Implicit Attitudes –Function in an unconscious & unintentional manner –How do we measure??
Implicit Prejudice Unconscious, unintentional, automatic How is it measured? –IAT –Bona fide pipeline –fMRI
How Stereotypes Affect their Targets Stereotype Threat –How does it operate?