2Components of Group Antagonism Stereotypes (cognitive)Prejudice (affective)Discrimination (behavioral)
3StereotypesBeliefs about the personal attributes shared by people in a particular group or social category.May have a “grain of truth.”Usually contain much inaccuracyOver-generalizedOveremphasize negative attributesUnderestimate group variability
4StereotypesKnowing that one may be stereotyped by others can create a self-fulfilling prophecy.Others’ behavior can influence the target.The mere expectation of being stereotyped can create stereotype threat.
5Stereotypes Steele & Aronson (1995) Blacks and whites completed a test that was described as either “real” or as a lab exerciseOnly when the test was described as “real” did blacks perform worse.Illustrates impact of stereotype threat.
6PrejudiceThe evaluation of a group or an individual based mainly on group membershipNot necessarily negative: ethnocentrism is positive prejudice towards one’s in-group
7Prejudice Prejudice affects public policy preferences prejudiced whites oppose affirmative action and bilingual educationprejudiced straights favor restrictions on HIV-positive individuals.
8PrejudiceIn the real world, prejudice and stereotyping tend to go togetherHowever, unprejudiced people do know the most common stereotypes even though they don’t believe them.
9DiscriminationNegative behaviors towards individuals based on their group membership.May be blatant or subtle; both can be damaging
10DiscriminationDiscrimination disguised as something else leads to attributional ambiguity.Being able to blame outcomes on discrimination decreases the impact of negative evaluations
11Discrimination White evaluator rated blacks. Attributional Ambiguity: Crocker & Major (1989)White evaluator rated blacks.Evaluator could or could not see other.Blacks rated negatively by a white who could see them attributed rating to discrimination and suffered less damage to self-esteem.
12Learning PrejudiceAccording to social learning theory, we learn prejudice the same way we learn other attitudes and valuesSocializationThe Media
13Learning PrejudiceSocialization is the process by which children learn the social norms of their surroundings.By age 4 or 5, most urban whites begin to show prejudices, and these prejudices further develop during grade school.By adolescence, prejudice is hard to change.
14Learning Prejudice Media coverage reflects and reinforces stereotypes. E.g., Gilens (1999) found that the media presents an inaccurate picture of people on welfare, showing them as much more likely to be black and unemployed than is the case in reality.
15Motives for PrejudicePsychodynamic ApproachesIntergroup Competition
16Motives: Psychodynamic Prejudice is viewed by some as displaced aggression onto a group that serves as a scapegoat.
17Motives: Psychodynamic The authoritarian personality theory treats prejudice as a personality disorderA modern reinterpretation suggests that right-wing authoritarianism may stem from social learning rather than psychopathology
18Motives: Intergroup Competition Realistic group conflict theory views prejudice as an inevitable consequence of conflict between groups for limited resourcesRelative deprivation is keyPrivileged groups have a sense of group position and work to protect their status
19Motives: Intergroup Competition Dominant groups maintain their privileged position by two mechanismsOn an interpersonal level, the dominant group acts paternalistic while the subordinate shows deferenceDominant groups create legitimizing myths to explain why change is impossible
21Motives: Intergroup Competition Group interest, not self-interest, has the greater effect on prejudiced attitudesE.g., opposition to affirmative action by whites is not based on fears of personal job loss
22Cognitive Bases of Prejudice Systematic cognitive biases occur because we need to simplify a complex world
23Cognitive Bases of Prejudice People categorize others into groups on the basis of perceptually salient characteristics(e.g., race, gender, language)Subtyping then occurs on the basis of more subtle characteristicsSocial norms provide a basis for categorization based on other attributes(e.g., religion)
24Cognitive Bases of Prejudice In category-based processing, the perceiver attends to individual characteristics only to determine if they are consistent with a social categoryThis is very efficient compared with the alternative, attribute-based processing.Category-based processing is automatic.Category labels tend to be emotionally charged.
25Cognitive Bases of Prejudice Category-based processing is influenced by the accessibility of categoriesAmbiguous or inadequate information is especially likely to lead people to rely on stereotypes
26Cognitive Bases of Prejudice People tend to believe they should judge others as individuals rather than by using stereotypes.However, people only need to believe they have considered information about the other to feel justified in their judgments.
27Cognitive Bases of Prejudice Advantages of Category-Based ProcessingReduced the amount of data to processAllows us to go beyond the information givenDisadvantages of Category-Based ProcessingOversimplify and over-generalizeStereotypes foster prejudiceCan generate false memories
28Social IdentityPerceiving people as members of in-groups and out-groups leads toIn-group favoritism and group-serving biasesThe assumed-similarity effectOther in-group members are seen as more similar to the self than out-group membersThe outgroup homogeneity effect“They are all alike, while we are diverse.”
29Social IdentityTajfel’s (1969) minimal intergroup situation randomly assigns people to two groups on an arbitrary basisMerely being categorized into groups leads people to show more favorable attitudes and behavior towards in-group than out-group members
30Social Identity Assumptions of Social Identity Theory: 1. People categorize the world into in-groups and out-groups.2. People derive self-esteem from their social identity as in-group members.3. People’s self-esteem depends partly on how they evaluate the in-group relative to other groups.
31Social Identity In-group favoritism enhances self-esteem. However, low self-esteem doesn’t foster in-group favoritism.People with low self-esteem are more prejudiced against out-groups, but they are negative about the in-group as well.
32Comparison of Theories There is some truth to each of the theories (social learning, motivational, cognitive, social identity), and generally they complement each other.The major disagreement is whether cultural differences in prejudice stem from competition for resources or from other sources.
33The Changing Face of Prejudice Declining Old-Fashioned PrejudicesMost whites now endorse racial equalityAnti-Semitism has decreasedAnti-gay prejudice is also declining
34The Changing Face of Prejudice However, there is still resistance to full equalityNegative stereotypes persistWhites give only weak support to government action to promote racial equality
35The Changing Face of Prejudice Is the apparent decline in racism real or illusory?Because there are few differences between responses to face-to-face interviews and private, anonymous survey questionnaires, most social scientists believe the decline is real.
36The Changing Face of Prejudice Some believe that old-fashioned racism has been replaced by symbolic racismSymbolic racism reflects these beliefs:discrimination is no longer a major obstacleblacks do not make enough effort to help themselvesdemands for special treatment by blacks are unwarranted (and resented)
37The Changing Face of Prejudice Symbolic racism is correlated with old-fashioned prejudice and is a stronger predictor of white’s opposition to policies such as affirmative action.Similar concepts have been applied to other prejudices, e.g. neosexism
38The Changing Face of Prejudice Aversive Racism results from support for racial equality mixed with negative feelings towards blacks.Aversive racism leads whites to avoid blacks because they feel ashamed of having negative feelings and allows them to protect their self-image as unprejudiced.Aversive racism may allow whites to discriminate against blacks when there is a plausible non-racist justification for their actions.
39The Changing Face of Prejudice Implicit stereotypes are automatically activated without awareness of their influence.
40The Changing Face of Prejudice Measuring Implicit StereotypesExample: people are asked to categorize words as + or -.If a picture of a black face before the word “lazy” speeds the response, while a black face before the word “intelligent” slows the response, this indicates that the person possesses an implicit stereotype.
41The Changing Face of Prejudice There is much enthusiasm about implicit stereotype measures.However, they have not yet met all the standard criteria for good measurement.
42The Changing Face of Prejudice Explicit measures of prejudice may correlate with deliberative judgments while implicit measures correlate with spontaneous, involuntary responses.
43Reducing Prejudice Socialization Much change is happening spontaneously as target groups change and levels of education rise.
44Reducing Prejudice Socialization Patricia Devine’s two-process “dissociation model:” Many people learn stereotypes early in life (which then are automatically activated) and tolerance later (a controlled process).When these people are distracted, they may display unintended prejudiced responses, which they then feel guilty about.
45Reducing Prejudice Intergroup Contact Blacks and whites are still quite segregated in the U.S.Mere contact between groups will not necessarily reduce prejudice.
46Reducing Prejudice Intergroup Contact Gordon Allport’s contact theory: Cooperative interdependenceEqual statusSufficient frequency, duration, closenessInstitutional support
47Reducing PrejudiceIntergroup contact is likely to decrease prejudice only if the conditions of Allport’s theory are met.E.g., Aronson’s “jigsaw technique” has been shown to lead to decreased prejudice, increased self-esteem and academic performance.However, many efforts at intergroup contact do not meet the conditions.
48Reducing Prejudice Recategorization Encouraging people to recategorize members of the in-group and the out-group as members of a larger, more inclusive group may reduce prejudice.Superordinate groupE.g., praying together as observant Christians at a gameCross-cutting categoriesE.g., members of different churches who belong to the same soccer team.
49Reducing PrejudiceModern nations face the tension between desires for sub-group recognition and autonomy (e.g., multiculturalism) versus national integration and loyalty (e.g., color-blind society).This tension makes reducing prejudice more important than ever; but no one approach will solve the problem.