Presentation on theme: "Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination"— Presentation transcript:
1Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Chapter 5Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
2Defining Important Terms Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s backgroundSexism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s genderStereotypes: Beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain traits.Prejudice: Negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group.Discrimination: Negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.
3Persistence and Change In general, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are less acceptable than ever before.But exceptions do exist.
4Racism: Current Forms and Challenges Research reveals that racial prejudice has been on the decline over the last several decadesRe-election of Barack Obama was seen by many as significant sign of racial progress
5Types of RacismModern Racism: A form of racism that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalizeImplicit Racism: Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally
6Sexism: Ambivalence and Double Standards Blatant displays of sexism are less socially acceptable than in the pastBut do continue to persist todayGender stereotypes are distinct in that they are not only descriptive, but also prescriptiveThey tell people what they should do or be
7Ambivalent SexismForm of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs/feelings as well as affectionate and chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs/feelingsHostile sexismBenevolent sexismSeems to have diminished over time, but discrimination based on sex is still prevalent today
8Being StigmatizedBeing persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic.
9Stereotype ThreatStereotype threat is the fear that one will be reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others.How can stereotype threat hamper academic achievement?The reactions to the threat can directly interfere with performance.The threat can cause individuals to dismiss the domain as no longer relevant to their self-esteem and identity.
10Social Categorization and Intergroup Conflict The classification of persons into groups on the basis of attributesIn some ways, is natural and adaptiveSaves time and energyBut can lead to overestimation of differences between groups and underestimation of differences within groups
11Ingroups vs. OutgroupsStrong tendency to divide people into ingroups and outgroups.ConsequencesExaggerate differences between ingroups and other outgroupsOutgroup homogeneity effectNew research indicates that perceivers may actually process faces of outgroup members more like objects than fellow human beingsDehumanization has played a role in atrocities throughout history
12Social Identity Theory Two Basic Predictions:Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism.Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self-esteem.
13Culture and Social Identity Collectivists more likely to value connectedness and interdependence with people and groups around themCollectivists less likely to show biases favoring their ingroups in order to boost their self-esteem.But collectivists may draw sharper distinctions between ingroup and outgroup members.Socialization refers to process by which people learn the norms, rules, and information of a culture or groupIncludes stereotypes and status of groups
14Gender StereotypesInundated with gender stereotypes from birth and through the life spanE.g., males more adventurous, assertive, aggressive, independent, etc.E.g., females more sensitive, gentle, dependent, emotional, etc.MediaChildren begin to understand these stereotypes quite early – one study, by age of 2
15Are Stereotypes Ever Accurate? What is meant by “accurate”?Stereotyping can often lead to self-fulfilling prophecies which further distort perceptions and realities
16Confirmation Biases and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Stereotypes are often maintained and strengthened through confirmation biases.Tendency to interpret, seek, and create information to confirm expectationsStereotypes can cause a perceiver to act in such a way that the stereotyped group member really does behave in a stereotype-confirming way.The stereotype creates a “self-fulfilling prophecy.”
17How Stereotypes Survive and Self-Perpetuate Illusory correlation: The tendency for people to overestimate the link between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated.Tend to overestimate the association between variables when:The variables are distinctiveThe variables are already expected to go together