2Recall: In-Group Out-Group Social group to which a person belongs (“us”)We care about others’ welfare, cooperate withOut-GroupSocial group to which a person does not belong (“them”)We don’t care about group members’ welfare
3PrejudicePositive or negative attitude towards individuals based on their membership in a particular social groupPrejudgment
5Prejudice is an Attitude AffectBehavioral TendenciesInclination to act according to prejudiceDiscrimination: Positive or negative behavior directed toward the persons or groups who are targets of prejudice
6Institutional Discrimination Systematic discrimination against a group of people (includes racism, sexism)Not necessarily the result of prejudice!
7Institutional Discrimination Children of alumni receive preference for admission into some private colleges.Employees of a particular university are allowed free tuition, as are their spouses.A corporation decides to fill an opening "in-house" rather than advertise.A public hearing is held on the third floor of building without elevators.A fire department requires that applicants for the position of firefighter be 5'8" or taller.
8Prejudice is an Attitude AffectBehavioral TendenciesCognitionThoughts and beliefsStereotypes: A cognitive framework that generalizes certain characteristics to all members of a specific social group
9Stereotypes Often work as mental shortcuts Stereotype threat: Implicit stereotyping can ‘prime’ relevant behavior and attitudesMedia stereotypes: Cumulative effect over timeStereotype threat:Anxiety that behavior might confirm a negative stereotype; hampers performance
10Racial PrejudiceOvert racial prejudice and discrimination are have declined significantly in the last 60 yearsSubtle prejudice: Non-obvious, arises when it’s ‘safe’ to express
11Racial PrejudiceStudy: Applying stereotyping and prejudice to an ambiguous behaviorParticipants observe a videotape of a man lightly shoving another man during conversationWhite manBlack man13%Black manWhite man73%
12Gender Prejudice Stereotypes of men and women Overt gender bias has been decliningSubtle gender bias still exists
13Where does prejudice come from? Social SourcesEmotional SourcesCognitive Sources
14Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesSelf-fulfilling prophecyStudy 1:Do Whites treat African Americans and Whites differently?Participants interviewed a confederate for a jobConfederate: African American or White
15Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesSelf-fulfilling prophecyResults: Study 1Interview length: AA < WDistance: AA > WEye contact: AA < WSpeech dysfluencies: AA > W
16Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesSelf-fulfilling prophecyStudy 2Does differential treatment influence behavior?Confederates interviewed participant for jobTreated participant like African Americans or Whites were treated in Study 1
17Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesSelf-fulfilling prophecyResults Study 2:Participants treated like African Americans performed worse than participants treated like Whites
18Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesIn-Group BiasViewing our in-group positively helps us feel good about ourselvesNatural tendency to view out-group negatively
19Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalitiesIn-Group BiasInstitutional SupportsReflect a culture’s assumptionsReinforce culture’s attitudes and stereotypes
20Emotional Sources of Prejudice Realistic Group Conflict TheoryFrustration brings out hostilityWhen cause of frustration is vague, hostility can be redirectedCompeting for resources brings out frustration and hostilityScapegoating: Group blamed for problems
22Emotional Sources of Prejudice Realistic Group Conflict TheoryAuthoritarian Personality TheoryAuthoritarian submissionA high degree of submission to authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimateAuthoritarian aggressionA general aggressiveness, directed against various persons, that is perceived to be sanctioned by established authorities.ConventionalismA high degree of adherence to the social conventions that are perceived to be endorsed by society and its established authorities.
23Cognitive Sources of Prejudice CategorizationIn-Groups and Out-GroupsThe Minimal Group ParadigmOut-Group Homogeneity EffectMembers of an out-group perceived as similar
24Cognitive Sources of Prejudice CategorizationDistinctivenessDistinctive occurrences, vivid examples are easily remembered
25Cognitive Sources of Prejudice CategorizationDistinctivenessAttributionFundamental Attribution Error and Group-Serving BiasJust-World Phenomenon
26Can prejudice be reduced? Contact HypothesisWhat kind of intergroup contact would increase prejudice? Decrease prejudice?Cooperative contactJigsaw classroomFormal educationSelective perceptionDiversity training