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Prejudice. 2 Recall: In-Group Social group to which a person belongs (“us”) We care about others’ welfare, cooperate with Out-Group Social group to which.

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Presentation on theme: "Prejudice. 2 Recall: In-Group Social group to which a person belongs (“us”) We care about others’ welfare, cooperate with Out-Group Social group to which."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prejudice

2 2 Recall: In-Group Social group to which a person belongs (“us”) We care about others’ welfare, cooperate with Out-Group Social group to which a person does not belong (“them”) We don’t care about group members’ welfare

3 3 Prejudice Positive or negative attitude towards individuals based on their membership in a particular social group Prejudgment

4 4 Prejudice is an Attitude A ffect Emotions

5 5 Prejudice is an Attitude A ffect B ehavioral Tendencies Inclination to act according to prejudice Discrimination: Positive or negative behavior directed toward the persons or groups who are targets of prejudice

6 6 Institutional Discrimination Systematic discrimination against a group of people (includes racism, sexism) Not necessarily the result of prejudice!

7 7 Institutional Discrimination Children of alumni receive preference for admission into some private colleges. Employees of a particular university are allowed free tuition, as are their spouses. A corporation decides to fill an opening "in- house" rather than advertise. A public hearing is held on the third floor of building without elevators. A fire department requires that applicants for the position of firefighter be 5'8" or taller.

8 8 Prejudice is an Attitude A ffect B ehavioral Tendencies C ognition Thoughts and beliefs Stereotypes: A cognitive framework that generalizes certain characteristics to all members of a specific social group

9 9 Stereotypes Often work as mental shortcuts Implicit stereotyping can ‘prime’ relevant behavior and attitudes Media stereotypes: Cumulative effect over time Stereotype threat: Anxiety that behavior might confirm a negative stereotype; hampers performance

10 10 Racial Prejudice Overt racial prejudice and discrimination are have declined significantly in the last 60 years Subtle prejudice: Non-obvious, arises when it’s ‘safe’ to express

11 11 Racial Prejudice Study: Applying stereotyping and prejudice to an ambiguous behavior Participants observe a videotape of a man lightly shoving another man during conversation White manBlack man13% Black manWhite man73%

12 12 Gender Prejudice Stereotypes of men and women Overt gender bias has been declining Subtle gender bias still exists

13 13 Where does prejudice come from? Social Sources Emotional Sources Cognitive Sources

14 14 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities Social inequalities Self-fulfilling prophecy Study 1: Do Whites treat African Americans and Whites differently? Participants interviewed a confederate for a job Confederate: African American or White

15 15 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities Social inequalities Self-fulfilling prophecy Results: Study 1 Interview length: AA < W Distance: AA > W Eye contact: AA < W Speech dysfluencies: AA > W

16 16 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities Social inequalities Self-fulfilling prophecy Study 2 Does differential treatment influence behavior? Confederates interviewed participant for job Treated participant like African Americans or Whites were treated in Study 1

17 17 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities Social inequalities Self-fulfilling prophecy Results Study 2: Participants treated like African Americans performed worse than participants treated like Whites

18 18 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities In-Group Bias In-Group Bias Viewing our in-group positively helps us feel good about ourselves Natural tendency to view out-group negatively

19 19 Social Sources of Prejudice Social inequalities In-Group Bias Institutional Supports Institutional Supports Reflect a culture’s assumptions Reinforce culture’s attitudes and stereotypes

20 20 Emotional Sources of Prejudice Realistic Group Conflict Theory Realistic Group Conflict Theory Frustration brings out hostility When cause of frustration is vague, hostility can be redirected Competing for resources brings out frustration and hostility Scapegoating: Group blamed for problems

21 21 Emotional Sources of Prejudice

22 22 Emotional Sources of Prejudice Realistic Group Conflict Theory Authoritarian Personality Theory Authoritarian Personality Theory Authoritarian submission Authoritarian submission A high degree of submission to authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimate Authoritarian aggression Authoritarian aggression A general aggressiveness, directed against various persons, that is perceived to be sanctioned by established authorities. Conventionalism Conventionalism A high degree of adherence to the social conventions that are perceived to be endorsed by society and its established authorities.

23 23 Cognitive Sources of Prejudice Categorization Categorization In-Groups and Out-Groups The Minimal Group Paradigm Out-Group Homogeneity Effect Out-Group Homogeneity Effect Members of an out-group perceived as similar

24 24 Cognitive Sources of Prejudice Categorization Distinctiveness Distinctiveness Distinctive occurrences, vivid examples are easily remembered

25 25 Cognitive Sources of Prejudice Categorization Distinctiveness Attribution Attribution Fundamental Attribution Error and Group-Serving Bias Just-World Phenomenon

26 26 Can prejudice be reduced? Contact Hypothesis What kind of intergroup contact would increase prejudice? Decrease prejudice? Cooperative contact Jigsaw classroom Formal education Selective perception Diversity training


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