Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Social Context of Prejudice."— Presentation transcript:
Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Social Context of Prejudice
What are the social context that influence people’s individual attitudes and beliefs? Does intergroup processes contribute to prejudice? Do we think of people in terms of the social groups to which they belong instead of them as individuals?
Social Context of Prejudice Theories of relationships between groups: –Realistic Conflict Theory –Social Identity Theory –Relative Deprivation Theory –Integrated Threat Theory
Realistic Conflict Theory Competitive or cooperative People come to dislike members of other groups because they see those groups as competing with their own group. People tend to like members of cooperating groups People are motivated by a desire to maximize rewards they receive in life, even if that means taking away from others rewards People join groups to make it easier to get rewards through cooperation with ingroup members Competition leads to conflict that leads to prejudice
Realistic Conflict Theory Types of Realistic Conflict Intergroup Competition Response to Domination by Outgroup Responses to Challenges to ingroup Dominance Competition with equal group Domination of outgroup by Ingroup Stable oppression of Ingroup by outgroup Unstable oppression of Ingroup by outgroup Ingroup sees challenges as unjust iced Ingroups sees challenges as justified
Realistic Conflict Theory Stable Oppression False Consciousness—holding of false or inaccurate beliefs that are contrary to one’s own social interest and which contribute to maintained the disadvantaged position of...the group
Social Identity Theory Developed in Europe, this theory was developed based on belief that American psychology was putting too much emphasis on the individual and not paying sufficient attention on the role social group membership. Social Identity—part of a person’s self- concept derived from membership in groups that are important to that person.
Social Identity Theory Intergroup Bias Minimal group paradigm Paradigm—standard set of procedure for conducting research on a topic Ingroup bias—artificially constructed on bases of trivial criteria
Social Identity Theory Intergroup Bias Hypothesis Categorization—competition hypothesis— perceive members of outgroup as more similar to each other than they actually are.( Us vs them) All Asians look alike All Black men are athletic Latinos or Hispanics as a single cultural group Yet seeing members of the ingroup as individuals
Social Identity Theory Intergroup Bias Hypothesis The self-esteem Hypothesis– having a positive social identity with their personal identities Feeling good about oneself We identity with a group that does well, we feel good about ourselves—positive self-esteem
Social Identity Theory Factors that Influence Social Identity Self-categorization Optimal distinctiveness Threat to the group Chronic social identities Individual differences
Social Identity Theory Issues in Social Identity Theory Ingroup favoritism versus outgroup derogation Social identity and intergroup tolerance Personal motives versus social identity motives
Social Identity Theory Relative Deprivation Theory—people feel deprived relative to what they had in the past or relative to people who have the resource they believe they deserve. Getting less than the standard—feel deprived Based on personal experiences or comparing one’s situation with others
Social Identity Theory Relative Deprivation Theory Relative Deprivation, Dissatisfaction, and Resentment Distribution justice—unfairness, favoritism Procedural justice—unfairness of process rewards destructive Relative Deprivation and Prejudice Egoistic (personal) relative deprivation-degree to which a person feels deprived Fraternal (group) relative deprivation-
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions _________ theory proposes that people dislike members of outgroups because their ingroup is competing with the outgroup for resources. a) Realistic conflict b) Relative deprivation c) Social categorization d) Social identity
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions _________ theory proposes that people dislike members of outgroups because their ingroup is competing with the outgroup for resources. a) Realistic conflict (p. 301) b) Relative deprivation c) Social categorization d) Social identity
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions According to realistic conflict theory, people join groups a) for the social benefits. b) to enhance their ability to obtain rewards and resources. c) because belonging increases their self-esteem. d) to ensure procedural justice.
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions According to realistic conflict theory, people join groups a) for the social benefits. b) to enhance their ability to obtain rewards and resources. (p. 301) c) because belonging increases their self-esteem. d) to ensure procedural justice.
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions People with ________ social identities are most likely to be tolerant of other groups. a) focused b) complex c) simple d) chronic
The Social Context of Prejudice Study Questions People with ________ social identities are most likely to be tolerant of other groups. a) focused b) complex (p. 314) c) simple d) chronic