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1 Survey Research (Gallup) Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? 1958:

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Presentation on theme: "1 Survey Research (Gallup) Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? 1958:"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Survey Research (Gallup) Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? Would you vote for a qualified Black presidential candidate? 1958: 35% of Whites said yes. 1997: 93% of Whites said yes. Would you move away if large numbers of Blacks moved to your neighborhood? Would you move away if large numbers of Blacks moved to your neighborhood? 1958: 80% of Whites said yes. 1997: 18% of Whites said yes.

2 2 % who would vote for a qualified Black candidate (Gallup poll)

3 3 Terms Prejudice: Negative feelings toward people based on their membership in certain groups. Prejudice: Negative feelings toward people based on their membership in certain groups. Discrimination: Any behavior directed against people because of their membership in a particular group. Discrimination: Any behavior directed against people because of their membership in a particular group. Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background. Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background.

4 4 Modern Racism A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways especially when it is safe, socially acceptable and easy to rationalize. A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways especially when it is safe, socially acceptable and easy to rationalize. Ambivalence Ambivalence Avoidance Avoidance

5 5 Stereotypes Beliefs that associate a group of people with certain traits. Beliefs that associate a group of people with certain traits.

6 6 Stereotypes and Social Perception Stereotypes can influence our perception and memory of events. Stereotypes can influence our perception and memory of events. –Perception: Basketball study (Stone et al., 1997) –Memory: Librarian vs. Waitress study (Cohen)

7 7 Formation of Stereotypes Social categorization- classification of people into groups based on common attributes. Social categorization- classification of people into groups based on common attributes. –Ingroups vs. outgroups –The outgroup homogeneity effect-tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups. Sociocultural factors influence which categorizations we use. Sociocultural factors influence which categorizations we use.

8 8 Formation and Maintenance of Stereotypes Illusory correlation- overestimation of the association between two variables (e.g., race and crime). Illusory correlation- overestimation of the association between two variables (e.g., race and crime). –Example: Number of Business Relationships Harriet Has Been Exposed To In Her Life Deceptive Experiences Honest Experiences Jews5100 Non-Jews25500

9 9 Formation and Maintenance of Stereotypes Attributions Attributions Group attribution error- tendency to assume valid judgments about individuals can be inferred from characteristics of the group. Subtyping- revising stereotypes to incorporate exceptions. Subtyping- revising stereotypes to incorporate exceptions. Self-fulfilling prophecies Self-fulfilling prophecies

10 10 Devine’s Dual Process Model High Prejudice: Low Prejudice: ST Activated ST Activated No Correction Prejudiced Judgment Non-prejudiced Judgment

11 11 Devine’s Dual Process Model : Cognitive Load Predictions High Prejudice: Low Prejudice: ST Activated ST Activated No Correction No Correction Prejudiced Judgment Prejudiced Judgment

12 12 Stereotype Threat A situation in which one could be negatively stereotyped, judged or treated stereotypically, or in which one might conform to a negative stereotype A situation in which one could be negatively stereotyped, judged or treated stereotypically, or in which one might conform to a negative stereotype Effects: Effects: –1) Lower Performance –2) Disidentification

13 13 Spencer, Steele, & Quinn (1997) Men outperform women on a difficult math test, but not on a literature test. Men outperform women on a difficult math test, but not on a literature test. When the math test is presented as one that shows no gender differences, women perform equal to men. When the math test is presented as one that shows no gender differences, women perform equal to men. This occurs even when all participants are led to expect poor performance. This occurs even when all participants are led to expect poor performance.

14 14 Steele & Aronson (1995) When a test is described as an intelligence test, White students outperform Black students. When a test is described as an intelligence test, White students outperform Black students. But when the same test is described as a laboratory problem solving test, Whites and Blacks perform equally well. But when the same test is described as a laboratory problem solving test, Whites and Blacks perform equally well.

15 15 Origins of Prejudice 1. Competition for scarce resources 1. Competition for scarce resources –Realistic group conflict theory (Worchel, 1977): rejection of other groups occurs during competition for scarce resources –Robber’s Cave Experiment (Sherif & Sherif, 1954)

16 16 Origins of Prejudice 2. Social Categorization – the process of classifying people according to particular social characteristics. 2. Social Categorization – the process of classifying people according to particular social characteristics. –Minimal group paradigm (Tajfel, 1980’s) –In-group bias- the tendency to favor one’s own groups.

17 17 How many dots are on the screen? ………………………………………………………..……………………………….…………………………………………….…………………………………………………….…………………………………….…………………………………………………………..………………………………………………..

18 18 Reward Allocation Jon A Bob B

19 19 Results Ingroup vs. ingroup  even allocation Ingroup vs. ingroup  even allocation Outgroup vs. outgroup  even allocation Outgroup vs. outgroup  even allocation Ingroup vs. outgroup  2:1 allocation Ingroup vs. outgroup  2:1 allocation

20 20 Explanation for Ingroup Bias Social Identity Theory (Tajfel) – people are motivated to maintain self-esteem and can do this by (1) affiliating with attractive groups and (2) viewing one’s own groups as favorably as possible. Social Identity Theory (Tajfel) – people are motivated to maintain self-esteem and can do this by (1) affiliating with attractive groups and (2) viewing one’s own groups as favorably as possible.

21 21 BIRGing Basking in reflected glory- behavior that enhances our association with successful groups and minimizes our association with unsuccessful groups. Basking in reflected glory- behavior that enhances our association with successful groups and minimizes our association with unsuccessful groups.

22 22 Prejudice and Self-Esteem Fein & Spencer (1997) Rating of applicant Feedback Applicant

23 23 Prejudice and Self-Esteem Fein & Spencer (1997) Increase in SE Feedback Applicant

24 24 Reducing Prejudice 1. Contact hypothesis 1. Contact hypothesis –Equal status –Cooperation 2. Re-categorization 2. Re-categorization 3. Use of controlled processing to override automatic stereotyping 3. Use of controlled processing to override automatic stereotyping 4. Social Norms 4. Social Norms


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