The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Stalin] US & the Western Democracies [Truman] GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. Democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
San Francisco Conf. 1945 UN Charter was ratified on Oct. 24, 1945 UN Charter was ratified on Oct. 24, 1945 On Feb. 1,1946 Trygve Lie is elected 1 st General Secretary of the UN On Feb. 1,1946 Trygve Lie is elected 1 st General Secretary of the UN Viewed as a communist sympathizer by McCarthyites and a pro- western diplomat by the USSR Viewed as a communist sympathizer by McCarthyites and a pro- western diplomat by the USSR
HUAC 1945 Established (originally in 1938) to investigate reports of communist infiltration (in gov’t, in Hollywood, etc.); became Public Law 601. Alger Hiss, State Dept. official and Pres. of Carnegie Endowment for Int’l Peace, accused of spying by ex-Communist, Whittaker Chambers. Julius & Ethel Rosenberg were charged with giving Soviets secrets that led to their development of the Hydrogen Bomb. Sen. Joseph McCarthy, Wisc. R, led Senate hearing and claimed he had a list of “known communists.”
Kennan’s Long Telegram February 1946, Stalin gives speech that attacks capitalism US State Dept asked US Embassy in Moscow for an analysis of Soviet policy. Kennan responds in an 8000 word telegram stating: 1. Russians are determined to destroy the American way of life. 2. Greatest threat the US has ever faced. 3. Soviets can be beaten. 4. Soviets must be stopped. 5. Can be done without going to war. 6. Educate the public against Communism, and make people wealthy, happy and free.
Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech Was delivered March 5, 1946 in the United States at Westminster College in Fulton, MO with Harry Truman standing directly behind him in support. Was delivered March 5, 1946 in the United States at Westminster College in Fulton, MO with Harry Truman standing directly behind him in support. Originally known as his “Sinews of Peace” address, it has become more famously known for his public usage of the phrase “iron curtain.” Originally known as his “Sinews of Peace” address, it has become more famously known for his public usage of the phrase “iron curtain.” Initially condemned by many WWII allies who still viewed the Soviet Union and as an important wartime ally. Initially condemned by many WWII allies who still viewed the Soviet Union and as an important wartime ally.
Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech “From Stettin in the Baltic, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.” -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
“The Speech of Hope” Given in Stuttgart, Germany in September 6, 1946 by US Sec. of State James Byrnes Was significant as America’s first public stand against communist aggression. It promised an enduring presence in Europe in support of democracy and free markets Was a shift away from the agreements of Potsdam and the Morgenthau Plan Moltov, Byrnes & Eden in 1945
“The Speech of Hope” We have learned, whether we like it or not, that we live in one world, from which world we cannot isolate ourselves. We have learned that peace and well-being are indivisible… We intend to continue our interest in the affairs of Europe and of the world. We have helped to organize the United Nations. We believe it will stop aggressor nations from starting wars. Because we believe it, we intend to support the United Nations organization with all the power and resources we possess… The United States is firmly of the belief that Germany should be administered as an economic unit and that zonal barriers should be completely obliterated so far as the economic life and activity in Germany are concerned. James Byrnes “Stuttgart Speech”
Poland 1947 Seized by Soviets in 1939 as part of Nazi-Soviet Pact. Seized by Soviets in 1939 as part of Nazi-Soviet Pact. In the forest of Katyn 1940, 14K Polish officers were executed and buried in mass graves. In the forest of Katyn 1940, 14K Polish officers were executed and buried in mass graves. July 1944, Russia outwaits, rather than supports, the Warsaw Uprising, allowing the Germans to massacre the Polish resistance. July 1944, Russia outwaits, rather than supports, the Warsaw Uprising, allowing the Germans to massacre the Polish resistance. London Poles v. Lublin Poles at Yalta London Poles v. Lublin Poles at Yalta Predominantly communist gov’t of Lublin Poles w/ exception being Stanislaw Mikolayczyk, deputy PM. Predominantly communist gov’t of Lublin Poles w/ exception being Stanislaw Mikolayczyk, deputy PM. Corrupt elections held Jan. ‘47 and Mikolayczyk flees to West. Corrupt elections held Jan. ‘47 and Mikolayczyk flees to West. Communist party est. singular authority under Wladislaw Gomulka. Communist party est. singular authority under Wladislaw Gomulka.
Truman Doctrine 1947 1.Civil War in Greece in 1946-49. 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.In a statement before congress on March 12, 1947, Truman publically takes a harsh stance against communism as “evil” 4.“Containment” is now official US foreign policy. 5.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
Truman Doctrine 1947 At the present moment in world history, nearly every nations must choose alternative ways of life… One way of life is based upon the will of the majority… The second way of life is based upon the will of the minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms… the U. S. [must] support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.
Policy Planning Staff In June 1947, George Marshall establishes the PPS with “Soviet Expert”, George Kennan, appointed as 1 st director. Writes article under pseudonym “Mr. X”, entitled, “Sources of Soviet Conduct”, which introduces term containment to the world. Writes article under pseudonym “Mr. X”, entitled, “Sources of Soviet Conduct”, which introduces term containment to the world. Essentially a public version of his “Long Telegram” Essentially a public version of his “Long Telegram”
Marshall Plan 1947 1.Delivered as an address at Harvard, Secretary of State, George Marshall, announces the “European Recovery Program.” June 5, 1947 2.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 3.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
Marshall Plan 1947 4. Soviets respond by setting up the Moltov Plan to provide economic aid to E. European countries. 5. On October 5, 1947, Soviets establish COMINFORM, to unify communist parties. 6. On January 25, 1949, COMECON was founded to integrate all of the communist economies.
National Security Act The National Security Council (NSC) is also created to act as advisory office on all things related to foreign policy. In July 1947, The NSA establishes the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which is responsible for international espionage and info gathering.
Forced Integration Sovietization: Soviet Union aggressively incorporates E. European nations within an political, economic and cultural bloc.
Hungary 1947 1.Though discussed as a 50/50 state per Stalin and Churchill’s Percentage’s Agreement, it was later decided to fall under an 80/20 Soviet influence. 2.Hungarians were treated as a defeated country by the occupying Soviets. 3.Leader of Smallholders Party, Bela Kovacs, and others from his party, were arrested by Soviet troops. 4.In May 1947, PM Ferenc Nagy was forced to resign while out of the country, as the Soviets held his family as leverage. 5.Rigged elections held Aug. 1947; Rakosi assumes power.
Yugoslavia1948 Left: Josip Broz Tito Below: Tito reviews troops in WWII
Yugoslavia 1948 1.Was not occupied by the Red Army, nor did it share a border w/ USSR 2.Tito had been a successful guerilla leader against the Italians and Germans. 3.Tito had aspirations of a Southern Slav Federation 4. Stalin attempts to pressure Yugoslavia into compliance using propaganda and intimidation, but Tito resists. 5.Stalin was unsuccessful due to: a)Tito had great popular support b)Received $ from the West
Yugoslavia 1948 c. Stalin was careful not to pull US into a situation which he could not control. 6. Though he was the chief architect of COMINFORM, Tito / Yugoslavia was expelled from it in June of 1948 and was isolated from communist world. US sustains marginally. 7. Stalin initiates a repressive crackdown in satellite states against “national communists.” 8. Yugoslavia sets an unprecedented model for independent communism during the Cold War. Serves as a model for 3 rd World.
Czechoslovakia1948 Above: Edvard Benes Right: Czech Communist propaganda poster.
Czechoslovakia 1948 1. Stalin, afraid of Western sympathies for Czech. & desirous of industrial capacity, organizes opposition to coalition gov’t. 2. In 1948, Communist Min. of the Interior, Vaclav Nosek, replaced eight police commissioners with communists. 3. Protests culminate with defenestrations of two ministers, including Jan Masaryk, For. Minister & son of 1 st Pres. of Czech. 4. Pres. Edvard Benes resigns in protest. 5. Funding for the Marshall Plan had been stalled in Congress until the “Czech Coup” prompted its swift passage.
Germany divided (October 1949) US introduces new currency (becomes Deutschmark) in zones of Western influence in violation of Potsdam Accord. Soviets walk out of ACC (Allied Control Council) in 1947. In response to new currency, Stalin begins total blockade of Berlin in June 1948 (first military crisis of Cold War) Berlin Airlift begins and lasts 320 days w/ more than 200K flights! FRG (Federal Republic of Germany) is formed on May 23 with Bonn as its capital. GDR (German Democratic Republic) is formed on Oct. 7 with East Berlin as its capital.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (April 1949) United States Canada Belgium Britain Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
Beginning of the Arms Race The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in August 1949. The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in August 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers! Now there were two nuclear superpowers! Above: Drs. Andrei Sakharov and Igor Kurchatov Right: Первая молния “Pervaya Molniya” or “First Lightening” (aka “Joe 1”)
Fall of China to the Communists (October 1949) After temporary halt in Sino-Japanese War, Civil War breaks out in ‘46 between the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the Guomindang (GMD) PLA (communists) were under the leadership of Mao Zedong, and had the support of the vast majority of people. GMD (nationalists) under the corrupt and sometimes brutal leadership of Jiang Jieshi (or Kaishek), was propped up by western aid. PLA pushes fight to GMD, who flee Chinese mainland for the island of Formosa (Taiwan), taking nation’s gold reserves with them. PLA declares People’s Republic of China on Oct. 1
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 “the loss of China” – Who’s fault?
Tibet 1950 PLA invades Tibet as a consolidation of CCP control and reunification. PLA invades Tibet as a consolidation of CCP control and reunification. Outside world has alternative view. Outside world has alternative view. Repression of Tibetans results in over 1 million deaths according to some reports. Dalai Lama flees Tibet and lives in exile.
NSC-68 Events of 1949 caused NSC policy planning chief to side step bureaucratic channels and to submit the inter- departmental memo (NSC-68) directly to Truman. Events of 1949 caused NSC policy planning chief to side step bureaucratic channels and to submit the inter- departmental memo (NSC-68) directly to Truman. Made Moscow the “nerve center” of all communist activities Made Moscow the “nerve center” of all communist activities Above: Paul Nitze, author of NSC-68 Report advocates rapid increase in military spending to face challenge Report advocates rapid increase in military spending to face challenge
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”